### 1

### Degrees of Freedom of K -Tier Cognitive Cellular Networks without CSIT

### M´aximo Morales-C´espedes, Jorge Plata-Chaves, Marc Moonen, Luc Vandendorpe

### I. I NTRODUCTION

### Nowadays, interference is the main limitation in cellular net- works. On the one hand, several schemes such as Interference Alignment (IA) have been proposed to manage the interfer- ence [1]. However, these schemes require accurate knowledge of the Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT) and coordination among the Base Stations (BSs) when applied in a cellular network. Notice that a significant amount of network resources is needed to satisfy these requirements. On the other hand, in [2] the study of the area spectral efficiency lead to reduce the cell size with the aim of reusing the transmission resource, either time or frequency. In consequence, the tradi- tional homogeneous networks are gradually transformed into heterogeneous networks composed of cells with several sizes.

### In this context, interference management involves to handle a extremely dense and heterogeneous network where providing CSIT or cooperation results unaffordable.

### The Degrees of Freedom (DoF) in absence of CSIT have been widely studied for the Broadcast Channel (BC) [3], [4], and homogeneous cellular networks [5], [6] based on the concept of Blind Interference Alignment (BIA). In this work we study the DoF of the K-tier heterogeneous cellular network described in [7] without CSIT or cooperation among BSs.

### II. P ROBLEM FORMULATION

### We consider a K-tier cellular network. The tier k is com- posed of a set of G BSs, G = {b 1,k , b 2,k , . . . , b G,k }, equipped with M k antennas each, where M 1 ≥ M 2 ≥ · · · ≥ M K . Focused on the tier k, each BS b j,k transmits to a set of N = {n 1 , n 2 , . . . , n N

_{k}

### } users, each equipped with a single reconfigurable antenna that can switch among different preset modes. Each user in tier k receives its desired signal from its corresponding BS, which belongs to the tier k, and it is subject to interference due to transmission in the upper tiers k ^{0} < k, k ^{0} ∈ {1, . . . , k − 1}. It is assumed that the interference from lower tiers k ^{?} > k, k ^{?} ∈ {k + 1, . . . , K}, can be treated optimally as noise. If a user receives a strong signal from a lower tier, it proceeds to handover. Moreover, the transmitted signals in the tier k are subject to an average power constraint P k , where P 1 ≥ P 2 ≥ · · · ≥ P K . For the considered scenario,

### M´aximo Morales-C´espedes and Luc Vandendorpe are with Institute of Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM). Universit´e Catholique de Louvain, Belgium (email:

### [email protected], [email protected]).

### Jorge Plata-Chaves and Marc Moonen are with the Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT-SCD/ SISTA), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium (e-mail: [email protected], [email protected])

### The authors would like to thank BELSPO for the funding of the IAP BESTCOM

0 0.5

### Tier 2 DoF

21 1.5 4 2 3.5 3

### Tier 1 DoF

12.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.8

0 0.4 0.6

0.2 1 1.2 1.4

### T ie r 3 D oF

3C

F

A 0

G

D E

B

### Fig. 1. DoF-region for a 3-tier heterogeneous network. First tier M 1 = 5, N 1 = 10, second tier M 2 = 3, N 2 = 5, third tier M 3 = 2, N 3 = 2.

### we assume that the transmitters do not have any CSIT or cooperation among other BSs.

### III. D EGREES OF F REEDOM OF K -T IER HETEROGENEOUS

### N ETWORKS W ITHOUT CSIT

### Theorem 1. For a K-tier cellular network where the BSs of the k-th tier are equipped with M _{k} antennas serving N _{k} users as defined in Section II. In absence of CSIT or cooperation among transmiters, the DoF outer bound of the deepest tier, i.e. the tier K, is given by

### d Σ

K### ≤ M _{K} N _{K}

### M K + N K − 1 1 −

### K−1

### X

### k=1

### 1 M k

### d Σ

_{k}

### !

### . (1)

### Corollary 1. For the consider K-tier network, the outer bound of the DoF for the tier k assuming that each upper tier obtains the optimal DoF is

### d Σ

_{k}

### ≤ M k N k Q k−1

### j=1 (M j − 1) Q k

### i=1 (M _{i} + N _{i} − 1) . (2) Corollary 2. For the considered K-tier network, transmit zero-DoF in the upper tiers with the aim of improving the per- formance of the lower tiers involves to achieve less sum-DoF in the whole system than managing the inter-tier interference.

### The DoF-region of a 3-tier network, denoted as macro,

### micro and femto tiers from now on, is depicted in Fig. 1. First,

### note that the points A, B, and C correspond to the optimal DoF

### considering each tier as an independent BC. Focused on the

### 2-tier case, the planes formed by points A-C-F, A-B-D, and

### B-C-E correspond to DoF-region for the macro-femto, macro-

### micro, and micro-femto networks, respectively. For a 3-tier

### network, the DoF-region is given by the polyhedron shown in

### Fig. 1. Notice that the sum-DoF at the point G is 4.29 DoF

### while traditional orthogonal schemes are limited to 1 DoF.

### 2

sBIA
*Mk, Nk*

**Block 1** **Block 2**

1 2

**…** *(M**k*-1)^{Nk}^{(M}*k*-1)*Nk*+1- *M**k**(M**k*-1)*Nk**1+M**k**(M**k*-1)*Nk*

**…** L*Tk*
**h(1)** **h(2)** **h(M***k*-1) **h(M***k*) ^{…}**h(M***k*) **h(1)** **h(M***k*-1)

**←h(1)→** **←h(2)→** **…** **←h(M***k *-1)→ ←h(M*k*)→ **…** **←h(M***k*)→ **←h(1)→** **…** **←h(M***k *-1)→

S-Block*1, Tk*
*Tier k’>k Transmission*

S-Block*2, Tk*
*Tier k’>k Interference removal*

*Repeated R*

_{k}*Extended E*

_{k}### Fig. 2. Construction of the tierBIA supersymbol for the tier k.

### IV. A CHIEVABILITY THROUGH B LIND I NTERFERENCE

### A LIGNMENT

### A. Blind Interference Alignment for the Broadcast Channel The BIA scheme for the MISO BC (sBIA) achieves

### M

_{k}

### N

_{k}

### M

k### +N

k### −1 DoF where the transmitter is equipped with M k

### antennas serving N k users [4]. By using reconfigurable anten- nas, the key idea behind sBIA is to create a supersymbol where the channel state of any user changes among M k preset modes while the channel state of all other users remains constant. As is shown in Fig. 2, the supersymbol can be divided in two parts. Block 1 where simultaneous transmission to all users takes place and Block 2 employed to transmit each symbol, which carries M k DoF, in orthogonal fashion.

### B. Blind Interference Alignment for the K-tier network Checking the supersymbol structure of the sBIA scheme, it can be seen that the interference subspace is transmitted during Block 2. Notice that for the K-tier network model, the user of tiers k ^{0} > k can measure the interference subspace of the tier k during Block 2 if the BSs of the tiers k ^{0} > k remain in silent during the transmission of Block 2 in tier k, i.e. in a cognitive fashion. We propose a BIA scheme for K-tier networks (tierBIA) based on the extension and repetition of the sBIA structure of each tier that ensures the alignment among tiers as is shown in Fig. 2. The proposed scheme ensures the subtraction of the intracell and the inter-tier interference.

### C. Achievable Rates by tier Blind Interference Alignment For the user n i located in the BS j within the tier k, the normalized rate per symbol extension is

### R ^{[n}

^{i}

^{,b}

^{j,k}

^{]} = B _{k} E

### h log det

### I + ¯ P _{k} H ^{[b}

^{j,k}

^{,n}

^{i}

^{]} H ^{[b}

^{j,k}

^{,n}

^{i}

^{]H} R ^{−1} _{z}

k

### i (3) where B _{k} is the ratio of alignment blocks over the super- symbol length, ¯ P _{k} is the power allocated to each stream, and H ^{[b}

^{j,k}

^{,n}

^{i}

^{]} is the channel matrix between the BS b j,k and users n i that contains the value for M k distinct preset modes, and therefore, it is full rank. Moreover, because of the subtraction of the interference terms, and defining S k = P K

### k

^{0}

### ≤k N k

^{0}

### and S ^{0} _{k} = P K

### k

^{0}

### <k N k

^{0}

### , the covariance matrix of the noise after interference cancellation is R z

k### = S k I M

_{k}

### −1 0 M

_{k}

### −1,1

### 0 1,M

_{k}

### −1 S _{k} ^{0}

### .

### V. S IMULATIONS R ESULTS

### In Fig. 3 we show the achievable rates in a one-dimensional 3-tier network where the macro and micro BSs are located in the position 0 and 300 m, respectively, while 5 femtocells are

User position [m]

50 150 250 350 450 550 650 750 850 950

MacroandMicrouser-rate[bits/sec/Hz]

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

System users macro sBIA Macro user tierBIA Macro user Orthogonal Micro user sBIA Micro user tierBIA Micro user Orthogonal

### (a) Achievable user-rate of the macro and micro tiers.

Femtocell position [m]

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

FemtoSum-rate[bits/sec/Hz]

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

tierBIA tierBIA(macro) tierBIA(micro) sBIA Orthogonal

macro tier

Treat interference as noise macro tier

macro and micro tiers interference

interference

interference