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TheQuantumStateofaBlackHole UniversityofGroningen


Academic year: 2021

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University of Groningen

Faculty of Mathematics & Natural Sciences: Physics

Master Thesis

The Quantum State of a Black Hole

Perturbations to the Hartle-Hawking state


Rik van Breukelen

First supervisor:

Dr. Kyriakos Papadodimas Second supervisor:

Dr. Diederik Roest

August 23, 2014


We use the thermofield doubling to study black holes. The quantum state of a black hole is obtained from the near horizon approximation for a black hole and from the AdS/CFT correspondence for the BTZ black hole. We perturb this state by changing the phases. This causes no effects outside the black hole, while the geometry of the inside of the black hole is changed.



1 Introduction 2

2 Rindler space 2

2.1 Rindler coordinates . . . 2

2.2 Rindler space and black holes . . . 4

2.3 Wave modes . . . 5

2.4 Behind the horizon . . . 6

2.5 Minkowski modes . . . 7

2.6 Entangled state as ground state . . . 8

3 Pertubations to the Hartle-Hawking state 9 3.1 Simple phase changes . . . 10

3.2 General phase changes . . . 12

3.3 Local phase changes . . . 14

4 An explicit example: The BTZ black hole 16 4.1 BTZ black hole metric . . . 16

4.2 Two-point function of a CFT on R2 . . . 17

4.3 Two-point function of a CFT on R × S . . . 18

4.4 Two-point function of a CFT at finite temperature on R1+1 . . . 18

4.5 Two-point function of the Fourier operators . . . 19

4.6 BTZ interior modes . . . 21

4.7 Behind the horizon . . . 23

4.8 Hartle-Hawking state . . . 24

4.9 Perturbed black hole: Phase changes . . . 25

4.10 Perturbed black hole: Shock wave . . . 26

5 Generalizations 27 5.1 Spherical BTZ black hole . . . 27

5.2 Power series method . . . 28

5.3 Rindler modes power series . . . 29

5.4 BTZ modes power series . . . 29

5.5 Schwarzschild black hole . . . 30

5.6 Higher dimension Schwarzschild black holes . . . 30

5.7 AdS-Schwarzschild black holes . . . 31

5.8 Interacting particles . . . 31

5.9 Actual black hole . . . 31

6 Conclusions 32 7 Acknowledgements 32 8 References 32 A Small proofs 34 A.1 Periodic euclidean fields and finite temperature fields . . . 34

A.2 Relation between geodesic distance and the two point function . . . 34

A.3 Passing through the number operator . . . 35

A.4 Calculation of series . . . 35


1 Introduction

Black hole solutions to the Einstein equations have been of much interest ever since they were first found by Schwarzschild. First disputed as non-physical objects, they are now widely accepted as physical objects.

However, to this day, black holes are not fully understood. A black hole is an object where gravity, relativity and quantum mechanics are all important. Moreover, some of these three fundamentals of modern physics seem to contradict each other in black holes. Where quantum mechanics demand unitarity, general relativity does not allow information to escape a black hole. This is called the information paradox [1].

The information paradox persists even after taking Hawking radiation into account. The linearity of quantum mechanics forbids doubling of information, therefore the information cannot be both inside and outside the black hole. This paradox is still not solved. An idea to solve this, is that a firewall at the event horizon destroys the in falling information [2, 3]. However, this would make the event horizon a special place, which contradicts the equivalence principle [3].

To better understand black holes, we look at the quantum state of a black hole, and how perturbations to that state affect the space-time geometry.

We consider the quantum state of a black hole for a free scalar field. This is the Hartle-Hawking state.

We construct the inside of the black hole through analytic continuation and find a smooth transition across the horizon. To further study the black hole, we perturb the Hartle-Hawking state and see how the perturbation to that quantum state affects the space-time geometry of the black hole.

In section 2, we look at Rindler space: both as a toy-model for a black hole and as an approximation to the near horizon patch of space. We derive the Unruh effect and obtain the temperature of a black hole.

We also derive the Hartle-Hawking state for this system.

We perturb this Hartle-Hawking state in section 3. We perturb the state in such a way that the outside of a black hole is unaffected, however, we see that the geometry of the black hole is changed.

As an explicit example of a black hole, we study the BTZ black hole in section 4. The BTZ black hole is studied with the AdS/CFT correspondence together with Maldacena’s proposal that a black hole is dual to two CFTs [4]. Similar to the Rindler case, we construct the inside of the black hole through analytic continuation and obtain the Hartle-Hawking state. We look how perturbations to that state affect the geometry of the space.

In section 5, we check whether the results of the previous sections would be applicable to other black holes.

We compare their internal modes to those of the Rindler and BTZ cases.

We will use − + ++ as our convention for the signature of the metric. Furthermore we use ~ = c = G = kB= 1 to define our units.

2 Rindler space

Rindler space-time is equivalent to the normal Minkowski space-time, thus we already know what to expect as we are all familiar with Minkowski space. We will use Rindler space as a toy model as Rindler space-time also resembles the space near a black hole horizon. A review of quantum fields in curved space can be found in [5].

2.1 Rindler coordinates

Rindler coordinates describe the same space as Minkowski coordinates, however, where in Minkowski space- time a observer has uniform proper acceleration, the observer is stationary in Rindler space-time. Curves with uniform proper acceleration are hyperbolic curves, therefore we can relate Minkowski coordinates and Rindler coordinates as follows:

x = ρ cosh(τ ) (1)

t = ρ sinh(τ ) (2)

Where x and t are the normal Minkowski coordinates and ρ and τ are the Rindler coordinates. This describes the patch of Minkowski space shown in figure 1.


Figure 1: Left Minkowski space, right Rindler space. In both cases the thin black curves are constant ρ curves, the grey curves are constant τ curves.

Therefore we need four sets of Rindler coordinates to fully cover the entire Minkowski space-time. Each wedge will have independent coordinates, furthermore we will label each wedge with either R (right), L (left), P (past) or F (future) where it is necessary to distinguish between the wedges. In figure 2 this labelling is shown. So we have four sets of coordinates:

R x = ρ cosh(τ ) (3)

t = ρ sinh(τ ) (4)

L x = −ρ cosh(τ ) (5)

t = −ρ sinh(τ ) (6)

P x = −ρ sinh(τ ) (7)

t = −ρ cosh(τ ) (8)

F x = ρ sinh(τ ) (9)

t = ρ cosh(τ ) (10)

With these coordinates the metric of Rindler space can be obtained. Starting from the metric of Minkowski space

ds2 = −dt2+ dx2 (11)

we obtain

R, L ds2 = −ρ22+ dρ2 (12)

P, F ds2 = ρ22− dρ2 (13)

From the metric it is clear that shifts in τ leave the metric invariant. These shift correspond with hyperbolic boosts in Minkowski space, the Lorentz boosts. Although these four coordinate sets are independent, if we want to use them together to cover Minkowski space we need make a choice for the direction for the flow of time to obtain smooth transitions at the boundaries of each wedge. The natural choice to follow the time-like Killing field (these choices for the signs of τ are already included in equations (3) to (10)), as depicted in figure 2.


Figure 2: Four Rindler wedges together cover the entire Minkowski space. The arrows follow the time-like Killing Field.

So far we have discussed only 1 + 1 dimensional space. We are free to include more dimensions, however, these extra dimensions will remain unchanged. For example 3 + 1 Rindler space metric in the right wedge is (depending on the type of coordinate system):

ds2 = −ρ22+ dρ2+ dy2+ dz2 (14)

Often we are only interested in the dimensions that for the Rindler space and forgo discussion of the other orthogonal dimensions.

2.2 Rindler space and black holes

Rindler space geometry is closely related to black hole geometry. If a Rindler observer in wedge R is careless and passes to wedge F he would need accelerate beyond the speed of light to return to wedge R. Therefore the boundary between two Rindler wedges is similar to the event horizon of a black hole.

Moreover a free falling observer in wedge R will fall towards the horizon, however, just like with a black hole it will take an infinite amount of (Rindler) time to reach the horizon, as shown in figure 3.

Figure 3: Left Minkowski space, right Rindler space. The blue line is particle at rest falling to the horizon.

We know that a free falling particle in Rindler space will follow a straight line in Minkowski space. So in


Rindler coordinates

ρ =p

x2− y2 (15)

τ = arctanh (y/x) (16)

as we aproach the boundary we have:

as t ↑ x (17)

ρ → 0 (18)

τ → ∞ (19)

Rindler coordinates are a useful tool in the study of black holes. For example the metric of the Schwarzschild black hole can be written as the Rindler metric when we look close to the horizon. The Schwarzschild metric is

ds2 = − 1 −r0


dt2+ 1 −r0



dr2+ r2dΩ2 (20)

dΩ2 = dθ2+ sin (θ)22 (21)

where r0 = 2M . in the near horizon expansion we have r − ro = ε and ignore higher orders of ε. The metric then reduces to

ds2= −ε


εdε2+ r20dΩ2 (22)

setting 4r0ε = ρ2 and t = 2r1

0τ we obtain:

ds2 = −ρ22+ dρ2+ r02dΩ2 (23)

which is just the Rindler metric together with the metric of a sphere with radius r0. Therefore close to the horizon we obtain Rindler space. Furthermore because we know that we can rewrite these coordinates again as a patch of Minkowski space we conclude that at a classical level we expect no strange behaviour at the horizon.

Rindler space can also be used to calculate the temperature of a black hole in quick manner. We Wick rotate to Euclidean space τ = −iτE and obtain the metric of Euclidean space in polar coordinates.

ds2= ρ2E2 + dρ2 (24)

To avoid conical singularities we need to identify τE = τE+ 2π, and as shown in appendix A.1 we conclude that the system is at T = 1 . Furthermore in the case of the Schwarzschild metric we scaled the time with t = 2r1

0τ to obtain the Rindler metric, therefore the imaginary time tE should be periodic with period β = 4r0π to avoid conical singularities. Thus the temperature of a Schwarzschild black hole is T = 8M π1 = 8M πGk~c3

B. For the Rindler temperature we will provide a more rigorous proof in section 2.6.

2.3 Wave modes

To study the effects of a black hole horizon we place a scalar field with mass m on the background of the Rindler metric. A scalar field obeys the Klein-Gordon equation.

ψ = m2ψ (25)

In a curved background this becomes [5]:



−ggµννψ = m2ψ (26)

Using the ansatz ψ(τ, ρ) = e−iωτfω(ρ) together with the Rindler metric in the R wedge, we obtain:

ρ2fω00+ ρfω0 − (ρ2m2− ω2)fω= 0 (27)


Therefore our solution is of the form:

fω(ρ) = NωK(mρ) (28)

where Nω is some normalization constant and Kα(x) is the modified Bessel function of the second kind.

Although the equation is also solved by the modified Bessel function of the first kind, that solution rejected because it has infinite energy. We decompose the field in positive and negative frequency waves. Thus our field operator in the right wedge is:

ΨR(τ, ρ) = Z


dω 2π


2ω (aR,ωψR,ω(τ, ρ) + h.c.) (29)

ψR,ω(τ, ρ) = e−iωτNωK(mρ) (30)

A similar expression holds for the left wedge, however, as the time runs backward we should choose a different sign for ω.

ψL,ω(τ, ρ) = eiωτNωK−iω(mρ) (31)

So at this point we can describe the fields in the left and right wedges.

2.4 Behind the horizon

Behind the horizon of a black hole corresponds to the future wedge of the Rindler space-time. We repeat the discussion of last subsection for the future wedge (the past wedge is similar to the future wedge).

The main difference between the future and the right wedge is the sign in the metric (12), (13). Which effectively flips the sign of m2 in equation (27).

ρ2fω00+ ρfω0 + (ρ2m2+ ω2)fω= 0 (32) therefore our solution is of the form:

ψF,ω(τ, ρ) = e−iωτωJ(mρ) (33)

where ˆNω is some normalization constant and Jα(x) is the Bessel function of the first kind. Because τ is now a space-like direction, we no long decompose this into positive and negative frequency waves. We have to consider the entire frequency range, however, for calculation it is more convenient to write them separately. Moreover, Bessel functions of the first kind can be written as a linear combination of modified Bessel functions of the second kind, which makes it easier to compare with the modes in the right wedge.

Therefore our modes in the future wedge are.

ψ1,ω(τ, ρ) = e−iωτωK(−imρ) (34) ψ2,ω(τ, ρ) = eiωτωK−iω(−imρ) (35) where in the second mode we have flipped the sign of ω to obtain only positive ω for the field operator:

ΨF(τ, ρ) = Z


dω 2π


2ω(a1,ωψ1,ω(τ, ρ) + a2,ωψ2,ω(τ, ρ) + h.c.) (36) which describes the fields in the future wedge.

We now have two sets of annihilation and creation operators, the left and right one and the operators from the future wedge, while only one is needed to hold all the information. Therefore the right field (29) and its left partner describe the same information as the future field (36). Therefore we are able to link the creation and annihilation operators of the left and right wedges to the future wedge.

We analytically continue the modes of the right wedge to the future wedge. This is most easily done using light-cone coordinates.

u = t + x (37)

v = t − x (38)


ρ =√

−uv (39)

τ = 1

2ln (u) −1

2ln (−v) (40)

The expressions for ρ and τ hold for the right wedge and changes for the other wedges. The R mode and the future modes in the future wedge look like:

ψR,ω(u, v) = e−iω12(ln u−ln v)NωK(im√

uv) (41)

ψ1,ω(u, v) = e−iω12(ln u−ln v)ωK(−im√

uv) (42)

ψ2,ω(u, v) = e12(ln u−ln v)ωK−iω(−im√

uv) (43)

So in fact ψR,ω(u, v) ∼ ψ2,ω(u, v), furthermore we repeat the same for the left wedge and obtain ψL,ω(u, v) ∼ ψ1,ω(u, v). Therefore we can relate the creation and annihilation operators in the left and right wedges to the future wedge operators.

aR,ω = a2,ω (44)

aR,ω = a2,ω (45)

aL,ω = a1,ω (46)

aL,ω = a1,ω (47)

Intuitively speaking this exchange between creation and annihilation operators is to be expected. A particle passing the boundary between the right wedge and the future wedge is destroyed in the right wedge and created in the future wedge. Using this prescription we have found a smooth way to relate all the wedges.

2.5 Minkowski modes

The left and right wedges contained the same information as the future wedge and could be connected to each other. However, as we seen in section 2.1 the Rindler coordinates describe the same space as Minkowski coordinates. Therefore we can relate the Rindler modes to the Minkowski modes. As the future modes are related to the left and right modes we only have to relate the Minkowski modes to one set of modes. We will rewrite the left and right modes as follows:

ψR,ωRin =

R,ω In region R

0 In region L (48)


(0 In region R

ψL,ω In region L (49)

Furthermore with constant ρ we can rewrite τ = − ln(ρ) + ln(u) in the R region. So the above equation become:


(e−iωτ ∼ e−iω ln(u) In region R

0 In region L (50)


(0 In region R

eiωτ ∼ eiω ln(−u) In region L (51)

Let ψMin1,ω be the Minkowski modes corresponding to the positive frequency solution. These Minkowski modes will have contributions of all Rindler modes with forward moving modes, forward from the point of view if Minkowski observer. These are the ψR,ωRin and ψL,ωRin †modes. Therefore the Minkowski modes will be of the form:

ψMin1,ω = N

(aψR,ω In region R

L,ω In region L (52)


where a, b are some constants and N is a normalization factor. Furthermore we require analyticity around u = 0. When analytically continue the R modes into the L region (where u is negative) we obtain:

ψR,ωRin ∼ e−iω ln(u) = e−iω ln((−1)(−u))= e−iω ln(−u)e−ωπ∼ e−πωψL,ωRin † (53) So our positive frequency Minkowski modes become:


ψR,ωRin+ e−πωψL,ωRin †

/(1 − e−2πω)12 (54)

Similarly the negative frequency Minkowskki modes are:

ψMin2,ω =

ψRinL,ω+ e−πωψRin †R,ω

/(1 − e−2πω)12 (55)

Using these relations we can relate the creation and annihilation operators of the left and right wedges to the creation and annihilation operators of the positive and negative frequency modes, which will denote with b1, b1, b2, b2.

b1,ω =

aR,ω− e−πωaL,ω

/(1 − e−2πω)12 (56)

b2,ω =

aL,ω− e−πωaR,ω

/(1 − e−2πω)12 (57)

aR,ω =

b1,ω+ e−πωb2,ω

/(1 − e−2πω)12 (58)

aL,ω =

b2,ω+ e−πωb1,ω

/(1 − e−2πω)12 (59)

As these operators are related non-trivially we need to take care on what state we act. For example if we act with an Minkowski annihilation operator on the Rindler vacuum we observe the following.

b1,ω|0, Rini =

aR,ω− e−πωaL,ω

/(1 − e−2πω)12 |0, Ri |0, Li (60)

= − e−πω (1 − e−2πω)12

|0, Ri |1, Li (61)

Thus what is empty space for a Rindler observer is not empty for a Minkowski observer, and vice versa.

This is called the Unruh effect.

It is important to note that the Minkowski modes used are not the Minkowski modes that are usually used.

They are labelled with some frequency ω, while usually we label them with momentum k. The relation between these different Minkowski modes is non-trivial, however, they do contain the same information.

2.6 Entangled state as ground state

As shown in the last section the Minkowski vacuum is not equal to the Rindler vacuum. However, as Minkowski space-time and Rindler space-time describe the same space there should be a corresponding Rindler state for the Minkowski vacuum. Therefore the Minkowski vacuum can be rewritten on the basis of Rindler n-particle states.

|0, Mini =X


cm,n|m, Li |n, Ri (62)

To remove all non-physical states we set cm,n = 0 for all m < 0 or n < 0. If we act with an Minkowski annihilation operator on this state it should give zero.

b1,ω|0, Mini = 1 (1 − e−2πω)12

aR,ω− e−πωaL,ω X


cm,n|m, Li |n, Ri (63)

= 1

(1 − e−2πω)12 X



m + 1e−πω+ cm+1,n+1

n + 1) |m + 1, Li |n, Ri (64)


This should be zero for all Rindler states, therefore:


n + 1e−πω= cm+1,n+1

m + 1 (65)

A similar procedure for b2,ω gives:


m + 1e−πω= cm+1,n+1

n + 1 (66)

These two equations together with cm,n = 0 for all m < 0 or n < 0 give that only the diagonal elements are non-zero, or more specific:

cn,n= c0,0e−nπω (67)

for positive n. Therefore the normalized Minkowski vacuum is

|0, Mini =Y


(1 − e−2πωj)12



e−njπωj|nj, Li |nj, Ri

 (68)

For a Rindler observer who can only observe the right wedge this looks like a thermal ensemble. We trace out the left system as the Rindler observer in the right wedge is unable to intact with the left side.



|0, Mini h0, Min| (69)



(1 − e−2πωj)



e−2njπωj|nj, Ri hnj, R|

 (70)

Which is density matrix corresponding to thermal ensemble of T = 1 . Another way to obtain the temperature is to calculate the spectrum of Rindler particles of the Minkowski vacuum.

NR,ω = aR,ωaR,ω (71)

h0, Min| NR,ω|0, Mini = (1 − e−2πω)




hnj, R| hnj, L| NR,ω|nj, Li |nj, Ri (72)

= 1

e2πω− 1 (73)

Which is the Planck’s law corresponding to the black body radiation with a temperature of T = 1 . There- fore we can rewrite all physics from the Minkowski space-time into the physics of the Rindler space-time, which closely resembles the behaviour of a black hole. The main difference is that where the Minkowski vacuum corresponds to an empty state for a Minkowski observer it is not empty for a Rindler observer.

However, combining the four Rindler wedges, the correspondence between the creation and annihilation between the different wedges and the correspondence between Rindler and Minkowski modes together with the entangled state just discussed, we have obtained a smooth description which is equivalent to the normal Minkowski description.

3 Pertubations to the Hartle-Hawking state

In 1976 Israel proposed that the space-time of a black hole can be described as an entangled state [6].

|Ψi = 1 pZ(β)



e−βEn/2|Eni1× |Eni2 (74) This is called the Hartle-Hawking state. Writing a real time thermal field as two entangled systems is used in thermofield dynamics as a mathematical tool. However, for black holes this method might by provide a description that can be used to describe the inside of a black hole.


We have already noted that the Rindler space-time closely resembles that of the space close to the horizon of a black hole, moreover the Rindler state (68) corresponding to the Minkowski vacuum is an entangled states of the form (74). If we drop normalization we have

|Ψi ∼X


e−βEn/2|Eni1× |Eni2 (75)

|0, Mini ∼X


e−nπω|n, Li × |n, Ri (76)

Where for the Rindler states we have β = T−1= 2π and En= nω. For the energy of the Rindler state we have dropped the zero point energy which will be taken care of by the normalization. Then these equations are the same. The Rindler space resembles a black hole even in this regard. If we only have information on the right wedge of Rindler space, or similarly the right outside the black hole patch, we can change the state without it affecting our physics. For example

|Ψi = 1 pZ(β)



eiδ(n,ω)e−βEn/2|Eni1× |Eni2 (77) where δ(n, ω) is some real function of n and ω. This state has the same physics outside the black hole. It has the same entanglement entropy, the same temperature. Requiring that all these phases are zero is fine tuning of an infinite number of parameters. We will discuss the effect of such a random phase in the next sections.

3.1 Simple phase changes

First we will discuss a group of phase changes with a clear interpretation. As stated in section 2.1 the direction of the flow of time as we have defined follows a Killing field. Therefore time evolution using the following Hamiltonian will leave the system invariant.

H = HR− HL (78)

Where HR and HL are the Hamiltonians of the right and left wedge respectively. This corresponds to the time flowing ’up’ in the right wedge and ’down’ in the right wedge, as depicted in figure 2. If we let the time flow ’up’ in both wedges the system will not be invariant under time evolution of the corresponding Hamiltonian.

H = H˜ R+ HL (79)

Which changes the state as follows (looking only at a single frequency):

e−i(HR+HL)t|0, Mini = (1 − e−2πω)12



e−njπωe−2iωnt|n, Li |n, Ri (80) up to a overall frequency factor.

This time shift acted on both the left and right wedges, however, we can obtain the same phases by only acting on the left wedge. We can combine the ’Killing’ time evolution with the ’up’ time evolution If we do this with the same magnitude but with opposing sign then the right remain unchanged.

e−iHte−i ˜H(−t)= e−2iHLt (81)

Therefore this phase change goes unnoticed when restricted to the right wedge, only when both the infor- mation of the left and right wedges is used is this phase change noticed. For example when we look at effect of a phase change corresponding to a upward time shift with magnitude tp. The state is

|0, Min, t^pi = (1 − e−2πω)12



e−njπωe−2iωntp|n, Li |n, Ri (82)


Which changes the two-point function of the creation and annihilation opperators as follows:

h0, Min, t^ p|aR,ωaL,ω0|0, Min, t^pi = e−2iωtp 1

eπω− e−πωδ(ω − ω0) (83) The other two point functions can either be obtained by taking the Hermitian of this one, or they remain unchanged. With this two-point function we can calculate the two-point function of the scalar field.

h0, Min, t^ pR(0, ρ)ΨL(0, ρ)|0, Min, t^ pi = Z


dω (2π)2


ωNω2K(mρ)K−iω(mρ) cos(2ωtp)

eπω− e−πω (84) Which according to appendix A.2 should be related to the geodesic distance like:

h0, Min, t^ pR(0, ρ)ΨL(0, ρ)|0, Min, t^pi ∼ e−md (85) where d is geodesic distance between the two points. The geodesic distance is non-trivial to calculate in Rindler space, however, in Minkowski space it is trivial.

d(x, t) =p|dx2− dt2| (86)

Which for the above situation is:

d = 2ρ (87)

It is clear that while (84) decreases with tp and according to equation (85) the geometric distance should increase, the geometric distance remains unchanged.

We have assumed that geometry of the space did not change by introducing phase changes to the Hartle- Hawking state, and therefore used equation (86) to calculate the geometric distance. However, the phase change did change the geometry. We can undo the phases by letting the upward time evolution act on the operators instead of the state. The two-point function will remain unchanged, however, the two point are at different locations now. Therefore the geometric distance is:

d = 2ρ cosh(tp) (88)

Which does increase with tp. The addition of the phases to the ground stated changed the geometry of the space. However, as we can produce these phase changes with either an upward time evolution (80) or a one-sided time evolution (81) the geometry within the right or left wedge does not change. The geometry changes at the boundary.

Furthermore because we can produce the phases with the upward and one sided time evolution we can also undo the phases with these operations. Given a Hartle-Hawking state with phases we can redefine our coordinates, shifted in some way, and return to the ’clean’ ground state.

While for the left and right wedges these time evolutions are intuitive this is not true for the future (and past) wedge. The field operator in the future wedge (36) can be split into two operators:

ΨF(τ, ρ) = Z


dω 2π


2ω (a1,ωψ1,ω(τ, ρ) + a2,ωψ2,ω(τ, ρ) + h.c.) (89)

= Z


dω 2π


2ω (a1,ωψ1,ω(τ, ρ) + h.c.) + Z


dω 2π


2ω (a2,ωψ2,ω(τ, ρ) + h.c.) (90)

= Ψ1(τ, ρ) + Ψ2(τ, ρ) (91)

Where Ψ2(τ, ρ) is related to the R wedge and Ψ1(τ, ρ) is related to the L wedge, as discussed in section 2.4. Therefore these parts are shifted differently.

While the geometry of the left and right wedges did not change by adding the phases, the geometry of the future wedge is changed. this is most easily seen from the two-point function in the future wedge:

h0, Min, t^ pF(τ, ρ)ΨF0, ρ)|0, Min, t^pi =h0, Min, t^ p| Ψ1(τ, ρ) + Ψ2(τ, ρ)

Ψ10, ρ) + Ψ20, ρ)

|0, Min, t^pi (92)


Figure 4: An upward time shift on both wedges splits the future operator into two operators.

=h0, Min, t^ p1(τ, ρ)Ψ10, ρ)|0, Min, t^pi (93) +h0, Min, t^ p2(τ, ρ)Ψ20, ρ)|0, Min, t^ pi

+ 2 Z


dω (2π)2


ωNω2K(mρ)K−iω(mρ)cos(2ωtp+ (τ + τ0)ω) eπω− e−πω

The two-point functions of only Ψ1 or Ψ2 are independent of the phases, just like the pure left or right two-point functions. On the contrary the cross terms are dependant on the phase change. Therefore the geometry is changed within the future wedge. Furthermore if tp becomes very large, compared to τ and τ0, the left and right wedge disconnect. Both the distance between the two wedges increases and cross terms in two-point functions tend to zero. We can also chose points that come closer together by the changed phases, however for the more general phase changes these points are a minority. As can be seen in the next section.

3.2 General phase changes

In the last section we discussed a simple phase change, now we will construct a general phase change. We act with the following operator on the Hartle-Hawking state.

U = e−iωθ(ω)NL (94)

where NL is the left wedge number operator. Furthermore θ(ω) is a real function of ω. Because different frequencies do not interact there are little constraints on θ(ω). It needs to be defined for all ω > 0 and non-singular in that region. It may be discontinuous at every point. The phase changes corresponding to this operator are:

U |0, Mini = (1 − e−2πω)12



e−nπωe−iωnθ(ω)|n, Li |n, Ri (95) At the same time the effect of this operator on the left field operator is,

U−1ΨL(τ, ρ)U = Z


dω 2π

√1 2ω

aL,ωeiω(τ −θ(ω))NωK−iω(mρ) + h.c.

(96) Which is a frequency dependant time shift. Furthermore two-point functions within the left wedge are unaffected by this phase change. However, cross terms between wedges are affected.

h0, Min, θ(ω)|Ψ^ R(0, ρ)ΨL(0, ρ)|0, Min, θ(ω)i =^ Z


dω (2π)2



eπω− e−πω (97)


Which again decreases the two-point function, except for the cases θ(ω) = 0 and θ(ω) = ωc with c a real constant. In these cases U is the identity operator or an overall phase change respectively. The previous section dealt with the specific case that θ(ω) = tp, however, the conclusions are the same for this more general case: the two-point function decreases and position is shifted if the phases are absorbed into the field operator. The operator is smeared by a frequency dependant time shift.

We can generalise our phases even further. For example, we can look at the following operator.

U = e−iωNL2t2 (98)

Which induces the following phase changes:

U |0, Mini = (1 − e−2πω)12



e−nπωe−iωn2t2|n, Li |n, Ri (99)

Or effects the field operator as follows, see appendix A.3:

U−1ΨL(τ, ρ)U = Z


dω 2π

√1 2ω

aL,ωeiω(τ +(2NL−1)t2)NωK−iω(mρ) + h.c.

(100) A number operator remains within the field operator. Also in this case the two-point functions within the left or right wedge remain unchanged. And again the cross terms between them are changed.

h0, Min, t^ 2R(0, ρ)ΨL(0, ρ)|0, Min, t^ 2i = Z


dω (2π)2



 eπω(1 − e2πω) (1 − e−2πω−iωt2)2

 (101) Which again decreases with t2. Now the field operator is time shifted with a dependence on the number of particles, and result is the same. Following appendix A.3 we can generalise this for higher powers of NL. Moreover we can combine phase shifts of the form (94) with phase shifts of the form (98) and their higher power variants to obtain the general phases.

Like we stated in equation (77) the most general phases are given by:

|0, Min, δ(n, ω)i = (1 − e^ −2πω)12



e−nπωe−iδ(n,ω)|n, Li |n, Ri (102)

This δ(n, ω) needs to exist for all ω > 0 and n ∈ N. Therefore we require existence and non-singularity on the dependence of ω. For n we are only interested in the integer points therefore we can always draw a polynomial through these points. Thus we can rewrite the general phase δ(n, ω) as:

δ(n, ω) = θ1(ω)n + θ2(ω)n2+ . . . (103) We can reinterpret this phase as induced by an operator:

U = e−i θ1(ω)NL2(ω)NL2+...

(104) Which, like as we did before, is used to change the operators instead of the state. This will smear the operator in the time direction, furthermore the two point function will decrease. This, however, is most easily seen from the work we did before.

Therefore every phase in equation (77) can be reinterpreted as some sort of time shift of the left wedge leaving the right wedge invariant, or vice versa. Barring special cases, the left and right wedge separate as both the geodesic distance increases and the two-point functions containing both left and right wedge terms decrease.


Figure 5: Phases in the Hartle-Hawking state can be removed by a non-trivial coordinate transformation on one wedge of Rindler space.

3.3 Local phase changes

If we are given a Hartle-Hawking state with phases, then we can remove the phases by coordinate trans- formations. These phases, and therefore the geometry of the space, are given from the start. A localized scientist or observer may interact with the state at some finite time. A localized observer does not have knowledge of the entire space. Therefore his operators will be incomplete, or flawed. We model his operators with a window function.

O(t) = e˜ −t2/T2O(t) (105)

Where ˜O and O(t) are the flawed operator and the normal operator respectively. We have used as window function e−t2/T2 because it is simple. However, we can construct more general window functions from this one. Moreover for convenience we will leave out normalization factors. We are more interested what happens to the Fourier space operators.

O(ω) = 1 2π



e−iωtO(t)dt (106)

O(ω) =˜ 1 2π



e−iωtO(t)dt˜ (107)

as an ansatz how the flawed Fourier operators are related to the normal Fourier we will use:

O(ω) =˜ Z


f (ω, ω0)O(ω0)dω0 (108)

we plug this and (105) in (107) and obtain:

O(ω) =˜ 1 2π



e−iωtO(t)dt˜ (109)



f (ω, ω0)O(ω0)dω0 = 1 2π



e−iωte−t2/T2O(t)dt (110) 1

2π Z




f (ω, ω0)e−i(ω0−ω)t0e−iωtO(t)dt = 1 2π



e−t2/T2e−iωtO(t)dt (111) Therefore we find that: Z


f (ω, ω0)e−i(ω0−ω)t0 = e−t2/T2 (112) Thus the inverse Fourier transform of f (ω, ω0) is of Gaussian shape. Therefore f (ω, ω0) is of Gaussian shape. So we obtain:

O(ω) = T˜ Z


e−T20−ω)2/4O(ω0)dω0 (113)


adding in the normalization may scale future results, however, their behaviour does not change. Moreover the operators we are interested in only exists for ω > 0 thus the lower bound of the integral is zero. The creation and annihilation operators are Fourier operators and their flawed variants behaves as stated above.

A localized observed can most easily study physics with two-point functions.

h0, Min| ˜a1)˜a(ω2) |0, Mini = T2 Z Z


e−T210−ω1)2/4e−T202−ω2)2/4h0, Min| a01)a(ω20) |0, Mini dω0102 (114)

= T2 Z Z


e−T210−ω1)2/4e−T202−ω2)2/4 1

e2πω01 − 1δ(ω10 − ω02)dω0102 (115) Which is non-zero for ω1 6= ω2. We are interested whether a local scientist can change the phases of the Hartle-Hawking state using these flawed operators.

|0, Mini = U (t) |0, Mini^ (116)

Where U (t) = eiωNωt. We need the commutation relations of the flawed operators to study this state.

[˜a(ω1), ˜a(ω2)] = 0 (117)

However, the other one is more difficult.

[˜a1), ˜a(ω2)] = T2 Z Z


e−T201−ω1)2/4e−T220−ω2)2/4[a10), a(ω20)]dω1002 (118)

= T2 Z Z


e−T201−ω1)2/4e−T220−ω2)2/4δ(ω01− ω20)dω1020 (119)

∼ T e−T21−ω2)2/8

 1 − erf

−T (ω1+ ω2) 2√



∼ T e−T21−ω2)2/8 (121)

We are only interested in the behaviour of this commutator, exact normalization and small factors like the error function do not affect the behaviour for large T . This commutator behaves as a delta function when send T → ∞. We can calculate the commutator of the flawed number operator with one (or more) of the Fourier operators:

[ ˜N (ω1), ˜a(ω2)] ∼ T e−T21−ω2)2/8a(ω˜ 2) (122) [ ˜N (ω1), ˜a2)] ∼ −T e−T21−ω2)2/8˜a2) (123) Using this together the following combinatorial trick [7].

Be−A= e−A

B + [A, B] + 1

2![A, [A, B]] + 1

3![A, [A, [A, B]]] + ...

(124) We pass the creation and annihilation operators through the time evolution operator,


a(ω1)e−iω2Nω2t∼ e−iω2Nω2t˜a(ω1) exp

2tT e−T21−ω2)2/8



a1)e−iω2Nω2t∼ e−iω2Nω2t˜a1) exp

−iω2tT e−T21−ω2)2/8

(126) and calculate the two-point function for the flawed operators for an one-sided time evolved state:

h0, Min|˜^ a1)˜a(ω2) ^|0, Mini = h0, Min| e3Nω3t˜a1)˜a(ω2)e−iω3Nω3t|0, Mini (127)

= exp

3tT e−T21−ω3)2/8 exp

−iω3tT e−T22−ω3)2/8



× h0, Min| ˜a1)˜a(ω2) |0, Mini

A phase is detectable by the local scientist and the reduced density matrix is therefore changed after the time evolution. This state, after the time-evolution, cannot be represented by a Hartle-Hawking state with changed phases as that would leave the reduced density matrix unchanged. If we allow the local scientist greater and greater knowledge (sending T → ∞) the reduced density matrix is not restored. On first sight sending T → ∞ would restore equation (114) to its normal form. The two exponentials in the integral become delta functions and off-diagonal elements become zero. Furthermore the phases in equation (128) become zero. However at the same that we let T → ∞ we should let in the Fourier space ω → 0 such that T ω = constant because longer time scales correspond to smaller frequency scales. Using this in equations (114),(128) restores the off-diagonal elements and the phase, showing that the reduced density matrix is still changed by this time evolution and can ,therefore, not affect the phases like the operations discussed in the previous sections.

Once we remove the phases as we did in section 3.2, they are removed for all time and a local scientist cannot change the phases again without changing the reduced density matrix on his side.

4 An explicit example: The BTZ black hole

The idea that a black hole can be described by an entangled state can be made more precise in the framework of AdS/CFT. With AdS/CFT we can relate fields inside AdS space to a CFT living on the boundary. Maldacena proposed that a black hole could be dual to two CFTs [4], each describing one wedge outside the black hole and together describing the inside of a black hole. As a specific example of this double duality we will study the BTZ black hole.

Figure 6: Penrose diagram of the BTZ black hole. Maldacena’s proposal places a CFT on either side of the black hole [4].

4.1 BTZ black hole metric The BTZ black hole metric is given by.

ds2= −(r2− r02)dt2+ (r2− r02)−1dr2+ r2dx2 (129) This metric is a solution of the Einstein equations in 2+1 dimensions. Moreover we clearly see the behaviour of a black hole metric. For r < r0the time coordinated becomes space like and the space coordinate becomes time like. And at r = r0 we encounter a coordinate singularity, just like we are used to for a Schwarzschild black hole. Furthermore if we make the following coordinates transformation:  = r − r0 and look close to the horizon <<r0 we obtain:

ds2 = −2r0dt2+ (2r0)−1d2+ r022 (130)


Now we set ρ = 2√

2r0 and t = r0τ . Moreover we ignore the dx2 term, which is merely extra dimension.

We get:

ds2 = −ρ22+ dρ2 (131)

the Rindler metric. Although we do not want to work in the approximation to the near horizon region which is Rindler space, we can use this result to obtain a the temperature of the black hole:

β = 2π r0

(132) The BTZ black hole we study is also a little different from the well known Schwarzschild black hole. The BTZ black hole is planar and not spherical. Moreover at r = 0 there is no singularity like in the case of the Schwarzschild black hole.

We want to study the BTZ black hole without making the approximation to Rindler space. The most useful method to study the BTZ space-time is the AdS/CFT correspondence. Letting r → ∞ we obtain the following.

ds2 = −r2dt2+ r−2dr2+ r2dx2 (133) now setting r = 1z we get:

ds2 = −dt2+ dz2+ dx2

z2 (134)

Which is the metric of AdS3, thus the BTZ space is asymptotically AdS. Therefore we can use our tools of AdS/CFT. A difference to the normal treatment of AdS/CFT is that there are two CFTs, another is that these CFTs reflect the thermal state of a black hole and are at a finite temperature.

4.2 Two-point function of a CFT on R2

As before we want to work with a free scalar field of mass m, this corresponds with a CFT with a conformal dimension of:

∆ = d 2 +


4 + m2 (135)

The most useful tool for CFTs are two-point functions. To obtain the two-point function we make use of the many symmetries of a CFT.

hO(x, y)O(x0, y0)i = g(x, x0, y, y0) (136) Using translational and rotational invariance we see that:

g(x, x0, y, y0) = gp

(x − x0)2+ (y − y0)2

= g(s) (137)

Where s2 = (x − x0)2+ (y − y0)2. Furthermore we have the scaling O(λx, λy) = λO(x, y). Which leads to:

g(λs) = hO(λx, λy)O(λx0, λy0)i (138)

= λ2∆g(s) (139)

There is an unique function that solves this scaling law.

g(s) = c

s2∆ = c

((x − x0)2+ (y − y0)2) (140) Where c is some arbitrary constant. Although we set c = 1 for our calculations at this point, we should remember that we have the freedom to choose c however we want. This could be useful for normalization further on. For now we we will use:

hO(x, y)O(x0, y0)i = 1

((x − x0)2+ (y − y0)2) (141) In a similar manner three point function can be obtained.


4.3 Two-point function of a CFT on R × S

For the study of a CFT with at a non zero temperature, it is necessary to obtain the two-point function on a cylinder. Therefore we need

hO(x, y)O(x0, y0)i (142)

Where the 2π is the circumference of the circle. We start with the unit circle and can scale when we need another circumference. We need to map R2 → R × S, for which we will use:

z = x + iy (143)

z0 = ln (z) (144)

z0 = u + iv (145)

It is easy to show that this maps the plane to a cylinder by writing z = re ⇒ z0 = ln (z) = ln (r) + iθ, where ln (r) is now the longitudinal coordinate and θ is the angular coordinate. This mapping is analytic everywhere except for the branch at z = 0, furthermore it has branch cut which can be chosen along the positive real axis such that θ runs from zero to 2π (which leads to the circumference of 2π).We can avoid the branch point using the translational invariance such that our coordinates in the two-point function are non-zero. Furthermore we will shift our coordinates such that x, x0 > 0, this will simplify our calculations.

The mapping z0 = ln (z) leads to the coordinate mapping:

u = 1

2ln(x2+ y2) (146)

v = arctan(y/x) (147)

x = eu(1 + tan2(v))12 = eusin(v) (148) y = eu(1 + cot2(v))12 = eucos(v) (149) Therefore we can rewrite the two-point function on the cylinder in terms of the two-point function on the plane.

hO(u, v)O(u0, v0)i = ∂(x, y)

∂(u, v)

∆/2∂(x0, y0)

∂(u0, v0)


hO(x, y)O(x0, y0)i (150)

= (eueu0) 1

((x − x0)2+ (y − y0)2) (151)

= 1

(eu−u0 + eu0−u− 2 cos(v − v0)) (152) We simplify this using translational invariance.

hO(u, v)O(0, 0)i = 1

(2 cosh(u) − 2 cos(v)) (153)

hO(x, τ )O(0, 0)i = 1

(2 cosh(x) − 2 cos(τ )) (154)

Where x = u the longitudinal coordinate on the cylinder and τ = v the angular coordinate. Therefore we have obtained the two-point function on the cylinder.

4.4 Two-point function of a CFT at finite temperature on R1+1

When we interpret the angular coordinate as (periodic and euclidean) time, we can wick rotate to real time using τ = i(1 − i)t. After this rotation we obtain the in real time with an inverse temperature equal to the circumference of the circle, as explained in appendix A.1.

hO(x, t)O(0, 0)i= 1

(2 cosh(x) − 2 cos(i(1 − i)t)) (155)



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