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Placement Journal - Translating for the UMCG

Student: Marissa Brad Student number: S4106156 Address:

Phone number:

Email:m.brad.1@student.rug.nl

Placement organisation: UMCG – Department of Communication Address: Hanzeplein 1, Groningen

Placement supervisors: Loes Smit-de Vries & Laura Bodewes

Bachelor RUG: European Languages and Cultures

Course: Minor Placement - LEXTRA-PLACE 2022-2023.1 Supervising lecturer: Dr phil. Vera Alexander

Wordcount: 4509 Date: February 8, 2023

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Foreword

Had someone asked me a year ago whether I would voluntarily do an internship, the answer would have most likely been no. Now here I am, writing my placement journal.

Although I first wanted to travel during my extra minor period, I eventually decided to do an internship. The main reason for this was to get practical experience after three years of following a mostly theoretical study. Also, I wanted to see what I could do with what I had learned so far and what job possibilities were out there.

Easier said than done. I struggled to find a place that would take an intern, would provide assignments of an appropriate level and that would interest me. An acquaintance of mine who works at the UMCG then recommended to ask the hospital’s communication department if they could use an intern. Initially, I contacted them regarding the newsletter or other media for which I might write and translate. After some consult within the department, Loes Smit contacted me that they were looking for someone to translate the staff association website, as they had received questions before whether this website could have an English version. When meeting up with Loes, we discussed what else I could do. Although this was unsure in the beginning, both of us agreed to start organising the internship and see from there where we would go.

It quickly became clear that team Research needed texts to be translated, as well.

Laura Bodewes was therefore assigned to be my supervisor besides Loes, as she works for the research team and overlooked the work I did for them. Both Loes and Laura encouraged me to meet with many different people, to learn about the workplace and to really get workplace experience.

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Table of Contents

Introduction 3

Tasks During the Placement 4

The Staff Association Website 4

A System 4

The Offers Page 5

Constant Change 5

Research Articles 6

Knowledge Articles and the Innovation Centre 6

Meetings 7

Evaluation 7

Output 7

Learning Objectives and Gained Competences 8

Useful for the UMCG 8

Useful for Myself 8

Future Prospects 9

My Study (and any missing knowledge) 10

Creative Writing 11

Personal Progress and Additional Competences 11

Feedback for My Supervisors 12

Literature 13

Conclusion 15

Sources 17

Appendix B 19

Appendix C 23

Appendix D 25

Appendix E 27

Appendix F 30

Appendix G 32

Appendix H 33

Appendix I 35

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Introduction

Although many people know the University Medical Center Groningen, or UMCG as one of the largest hospitals of the Netherlands, it is even more than that. The UMCG is an extremely extensive organisation with many departments and fields of work. The

communication department is one of many, but it is essential for establishing connections within the hospital, between the hospital and its region and beyond, including patients, companies and other hospitals. The core teams of communication, namely Patient & Care, Education & Training, Research, but also Online, Corporate and Marketing, all work to maintain these connections and to show what the UMCG stands for.

From the start of the internship, my job was to be the translator of texts, specifically for the staff association (“personeelsvereniging” or “PV”) website and articles for team Research. I expected the UMCG in general to be relatively bilingual, considering that it is an educational institution as well as the variety of nationalities of people that can be found in the city and therefore in the hospital. Already in my first meeting with Loes, it became evident that this was not the case. Due to such a large number of documents, it is almost impossible to decide which get priority and also to what extent certain texts need to be translated. The PV website would be a good start according to Loes. However, she made sure my internship did not solely exist of translating, and advised me to included meetings with people from all the teams, so that I would better understand how the department was set up. Moreover, I was very free in thinking of any other tasks I would like to do and who I wanted to meet, which

allowed me to learn about the UMCG as an organisation and employer.

Starting the internship, I thought of the goals I wanted to reach. My primary goals were to aid the UMCG in making more content bilingual, as they wanted the UMCG to be more accessible for non-Dutch speakers, and to actually experience working within an organisation. Other personal goals were to see what my study had taught me so far by

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applying my academic knowledge of and experience in English writing and to learn what future job prospect might suit me. Most goals I have reached, to various extents, for example by translating different kinds of texts and meeting with employees.

Tasks During the Placement The Staff Association Website

At first, I mainly focussed on the PV website, as I figured it would be good to start with one task while getting used to the department and work style. The staff association website, or PV UMCG website, is meant for members of the staff association. On this

website, there are news articles, activities, information pages and products with discounts for members.

A System

Although it was one website, and therefore a clear task, it involved many tabs and pages. Therefore, it took some time for me to understand how the website was organized and translating right away was not an option. As it was not possible to actually change texts on the website, I had to think of a system to use in a Word document to keep a clear overview for myself, as well as for the person who would eventually transfer my translation from the document onto the website. Using the header option, I was able to organize all the small texts I wrote. Additionally, by using a header you are able to fold or unfold the section below. This could be compared to clicking to a new page or tab on the website, showing a new text. I could therefore work systematically, without losing track of where I was with the website.

Furthermore, I would use for example figures and fonts to ‘replicate’ the look of the website in the document (Appendix A). Thanks to the headers, I could easily include a table of contents, so when clicking on a title, the reader could go directly to the required text.

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The Offers Page

Texts from the front pages, news articles and activities were quite quickly translated.

The most amount of time went by far to the pages with discounted products for PV members.

From day trips to restaurants and from household to beauty products, there was a tab with description, additional information and ordering details for every single product. Some longer, some shorter, but nevertheless almost too many to count. However, what made the

descriptions interesting to translate, was that the writing style varied based on the source, what was advertised and the target audience. This required a variety of different writing styles and tones, as they had to be similar in the translation. Next, many of the topics and vocabulary used in the advertisements were very different from those in the academic papers I often had to write. Especially the terms and conditions section needed some research on my behalf. This is quite static information with standard phrases, which I would normally not be interested in and barely use. Luckily, these sections were very similar for most products and once familiar, did not take much time.

Constant Change

A challenge was the continuous addition and removal of items on the website. It was impossible to translate every new text and to know which ones would be taken off soon.

Fortunately, many pages and tabs are not regularly changed, so I tried to translate those first, without losing too much structure in my working method. It became clear that my goal to finish the translation of the website could never be reached within the short period of my internship. During the last few weeks, Loes and I contacted Jorien Hofman about putting translations on the website. We agreed that it would be nice to actually place my work on the website myself and we asked Jorien whether this could be possible. She was able to give me access to the website to place the translation of a few pages. Even though this was to a very restricted extent, it did give me an idea of what the website would eventually look like. After

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the last day of the internship, I sent everything else that I had translated to Jorien, to be put on the website later on.

Research Articles

Besides the PV website, there were also several research articles I was asked to

translate. These provided a nice break from the website. Mainly because the articles were very different types of text. First, the articles are longer texts, meaning I spent more time on it, instead of constantly changing to a new short text and topic. This resulted in the possibility to invest in the writing style and coherence, which made it more similar to the writing style I was used to from university. Second, in order to understand articles and the background correctly, it was sometimes needed to speak with the author, who was often someone from the department. Thus, the articles required more contact with others compared to the website.

Third, most of the time, I was informed beforehand what the target audience was of an article.

This helped to decide on the writing style and vocabulary. Last, the topics discussed in the articles were scientific or medical, which I found to be very interesting. However, it also meant that the vocabulary was much more complicated and I needed to do more research on medical terms to understand the text, but this was a welcome challenge. I have included the first and last translated research article in this journal (Appendix B; Appendix C) as a comparison and example of the kind of topics I encountered.

Knowledge Articles and the Innovation Centre

Other texts I translated were knowledge articles and texts for the Innovation Centre.

This included interviews (Appendix D), news and instruction templates (Appendix E). The articles for the Innovation Centre mostly required me to work with another employee who works for the centre, to learn about it more in-depth and to understand their goals. Some articles for the centre had deadlines or were a priority, which gave the sense of actually working for them and being included in their tasks.

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Meetings

Early on, Loes made a placement plan which clearly included planning meetings with people from all the teams, so that I was aware of who worked at the department and what the various teams entailed. People were very motivational and helpful and gave me some idea of what jobs there were. Loes gave me a short tour through the UMCG as well, and let me do the introduction trainings online for new employees. This really helped to better understand the UMCG as an organisation before I started translating for them. Moreover, I was free in joining employees during meetings, such as being present at the pre-interview for the Research Talk Podcast of the UMCG (podcasts can be found on Spotify – UMCG Research Talk or UMCGesprekken). Sadly, I was not able to be present during the recording of the podcast itself. Besides work-related consultations, I was also invited to the small Christmas party and joined others during lunchtime on walks or in the restaurant. There was also a daily online meeting in the morning, called the stand-up, to discuss projects and questions, which I occasionally joined to hear what else others were working on.

Evaluation Output

In total, I have translated 21 articles (Appendix F) and finished most of the pages of the PV website with exception of the ‘Offers’ page. I was able to put the translation of the front page and some additional pages on the website myself. Various translations are already available on the website of the UMCG or that of the Innovation centre. Others are still in process. Eventually, all the translations will be published, although it might take quite some time in case of the website. More needs to be translated would they want to provide the entire website in English at once.

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Learning Objectives and Gained Competences Useful for the UMCG

My first and main goal was to aid the UMCG in making more of their content bilingual. Working at the department of communication, it showed that there is still much to improve and to make accessible for non-Dutch speakers. It became clear how much effort is put into keeping everything working correctly, being up-to-date and the presentation of the UMCG outwards. I think my presence as a translator at the office has helped the UMCG to make another small step towards investing more effort in translation work. Because although some people at the department make English texts besides the original Dutch texts, most were pleased that someone else was able to translate now, due to their busy schedules. On my last day, Loes mentioned that it might be possible for me to do more work for the UMCG, which confirms that they indeed found it useful to have a translator at the office, there is still much work to do and that what I had done for the department was very much appreciated.

My goal to help the UMCG become more bilingual is definitely reached by providing a large part of the translated version of the PV website, texts for the innovation centre and the main UMCG website in English. Eventually, some of the texts would have been translated anyways, but my presence ensured that the English version was often posted shortly after or simultaneously with the Dutch texts. Therefore, information was more quickly accessible for non-Dutch speakers.

Useful for Myself

As for my second goal, the internship made it possible to actually work within an organisation, although in some aspects to a certain extent. During the internship I gained much more in-depth knowledge and understanding of the UMCG as an organisation. By attending various activities or meetings I got to know people and was able to see how they worked. However, most meetings were not necessary for me to attend. The tasks I was

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assigned did not require me to have much interaction with colleagues either, as I could simply receive a text and start translating. Nevertheless, I was often included in conversations, lunch meetings and was always able to ask anyone any questions I had. I have attended the

interview prior to the making of the podcast and interacted most with a colleague who works for the innovation centre. These two activities really did give the idea of working together with colleagues. Of course, the various meetings with people from the teams gave me a good indication of how the other teams interacted as well.

Future Prospects

A future-oriented goal was to see what job prospect would suit me. Thanks to the helpfulness of employees, I got an idea of what job possibilities there are within the UMCG and other organisations. It became clear what the differences are in the various jobs and what kind of topics they work on. I definitely liked the scientific and medical topics and writing style of the texts from team Research. This was closest to the writing style I have learned during my study and the topics were very interesting. On the other hand, the personal aspect of focusing on the patients was what I liked from team Patient & Care. My interest in these aspects as well as multiple colleagues around my age are probably the reasons why I spent most of the time with these two teams. In my opinion, team Marketing, Online and Corporate were the furthest from my own study and more difficult for me to understand, therefore these teams do not necessarily hold job prospects I would look for in the future. So, the

combination of medical and scientific topics and creating texts is something I would look into more. Of course, this would then not only include translating, but more active tasks such as doing interviews, writing original pieces and looking for new topics, as it were often long days and variety in tasks is definitely needed to motivate me. Especially being part of the interview prior to the podcast showed me there is much more that needs to be done before

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actually writing a text. As for the future, I hope to find work that involves working together with colleague, besides doing your own research and writing different types of texts.

My Study (and any missing knowledge)

A learning objective reflecting on my study was to be able to apply academic knowledge of and experience in English writing and literature by translating different materials, to see what my study had taught me so far. I certainly noticed that my study background helped in understanding texts. Although most assignments for school were in academic writing style, I have had classes that were not as strict in using academic language, and was therefore able to use different writing styles. Also, focussing on various target audiences has been addressed in classes multiple times and doing background research and being critical is always advised to better understand certain texts. On many occasions, I used these skills when reading and translating. Last, there has often been attention for the use and effect of (social) media, especially in my previous minor Film and Contemporary

Audio-visual Media. This helped me to understand why media is such an important tool for the entire department, because of the possibility and accessibility of the many mediums the department uses to spread their information and the image of the UMCG.

As for translating, it turned out to be more difficult than I had expected it to be.

Although I regularly use and write in English, I had no real previous experience with translating and I underestimated the skills it needed. The struggles I faced required

background research on translating in itself and a better understanding of how to deal with texts. This will be looked into more closely in the ‘Literature’ section of this journal. Rather than just understanding the meaning of a text, you also have to keep in mind the target audience, the writing style, etc. Although I have not followed translation courses, I am sure that my study has helped reached a certain and sufficient level of English, the ability to use different writing styles and be critical, and to understand complex texts.

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One thing I did miss on the part of my studies, was the motivation to actually do an internship. Especially the conversation with the placement coordinator was not very helpful, as she was not really able to help me with questions such as what the requirements were for assignments, what a placement should generally look like, and because she emphasized that it was a lot of work for the supervisors and myself to do an internship, as it was not obligatory, but only for extra credits.

Creative Writing

Unfortunately, one of the goals I was not truly able to reach was to use my knowledge of writing in English in a creative way that was my own, as this was not really the case during this internship. There would be the possibility of writing my own article about the podcast as a practice assignment. Sadly, I could not join the podcast and I therefore ended up not writing an article on my own. Perhaps I could still have done this based on the interview prior to this, even though this was a very rough version which include much more complex information than the podcast itself eventually did. Still, while working on translations I did find that I became freer in the writing style I used as time progressed. Where I stuck to the original words, sentences and style of the author in the beginning, I was able to have a more personal style towards the end of my internship, while also keeping in mind the tone of the original piece. I do think I could have taken more initiative to try and write something myself, so that is what I should keep in mind for the future.

Personal Progress and Additional Competences

Although my internship at the UMCG was only three months, I have learned a lot.

First, some personal results are the increase in confidence, language understanding and vocabulary due to translating so much. During the internship, I noticed more and more confidence in my own translating skills. In the beginning, I stayed very close to the original wording and structure of the Dutch texts and was often checking whether there were other

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options that were a better translation. However, many Dutch words do not have an exact English equivalent and sentence structures can be very different as well. As I progressed, I became freer in translating the texts, without changing its meaning of course, and I also became much more confident in my own translation skills, which helped me to translate more fluently. Because of the many different topics, I have also learned a lot of new vocabulary.

Second, I learned to let go of stress and feeling pressured. The website involved more than I thought. I initially set for completely translating the website, but had to remind myself that there would not be enough time and it would never really be finished anyways. This helped to feel less self-opposed pressure, which was caused by focusing so intently on the website. Moreover, when getting used to the relaxed ambiance of the department, I got more relaxed and recognized I had to enjoy the experience as well.

Third, I gained some knowledge about websites and podcasts. I was able to change some things myself on the website and also talked with Maud Weelink about how they decide on choosing what to put on the website. Thanks to being a part of the interview prior to the podcast, I was able to partially see how Laura and her colleague work on the making of the podcast and what happens before actually recording it.

Last, I do think I could have made more contact with other people. Besides being very focussed on the tasks for the internship, I know about myself that socially I do not often take the initiative to make contact. I think more could have been done from my side to interact with people and be more invested in the workplace and its people, so it is important to keep this in mind.

Feedback for My Supervisors

I was mostly free in what I did and when, but could always ask for help would this be needed. There was no pressure, except what I put on myself, and I was encouraged to not only work but enjoy the experience. Although I am someone who works just fine on my own, I

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would have liked it if there had been a bit more active involvement from the supervisors, especially in the case of giving feedback on translated texts, but this might have been due to their own workload and my independent working style. As for my supervising lecturer, she was very interested and helpful, but also recognized there was no need for weekly meetings.

She was able to meet me online halfway during the internship and could otherwise always be contacted via email, responding quickly every time.

Literature

Every few weeks I searched for a few articles which I thought were interesting as they gave me some more insights in translating or were comparable to my experiences during the placement.

In the beginning, I needed to do some research on translating itself, to have a basis to work with and some more understanding of what it would entail. In the text by Zinukova (2016) there are 5 competences mentioned concerning translating (p. 20). Two I recognized would probably be rather difficult. First was the extra-linguistic competence, which for example entails specialist and subject knowledge. The research articles especially contained jargon and involved subjects that were unfamiliar and are thus more difficult to understand and translate. Second was the instrumental-professional competence, which entails

“knowledge of skills related both to tools of the trade and the profession” (p. 2o). As I was very new to translating, there was still much to learn about which tools to use and how to use them.

Another text I read early on during the placement, by Vieira, O’Hagan and O’Sullivan (2021) was sent to me by my supervising lecturer. This article focussed on the differences between human and machine translation and how misunderstandings via MT could have serious consequences. This was very interesting because it addressed mainly medical and legal texts. Although this was not necessarily the kind of texts I would work with, it was a

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reminder to make sure the translated texts would convey the same and correct message as the original Dutch version. As is emphasized in the texts, complex sentences are often better understood by human translators than by (simple) MT (p. 1524), which I noticed during my internship as well. I used the internet occasionally to find the right words. However,

sometimes words and sentences are clearly not translated correctly on the internet, and

underlying meanings can be better judged by actual people. This is also true for understanding the target audience. Advertisements for theme parks (Appendix G) are for example focused on children and use very different language from advertisements meant for adults (Appendix H). The text by Vieira et al (2021) also mentions how budget can limit the accessibility to good translators (p. 1519). In the case of the UMCG, much needs to be translated.

Unfortunately, translating agencies are expensive, which limits them in their progress to make materials accessible for non-Dutch speakers. Translators at the office, even if they are still a student, were therefore very much appreciated.

Interesting was that in the article by Li & Chen (2019), they provide a prediction that a very small percentage of work needs manual translation and most tasks can be done be MT (p.

45). This would mean that translators at the office would become unnecessary, but seeing how much the department needed translators, it might take a while for this to be the case. In my opinion, AI translating has to become even more accurate would people want to use this instead of human translating. At present, using MT can still cause many (grave) mistakes, as stated by Vieira et al. (2021). And although some documents could be automatically

translated, they might degrade in quality. Therefore, it would be more difficult to do this for an organisation such as the UMCG.

Something else I noticed during my placement, were the differences in freedom of translating interpretation in different texts. Academic articles need different and seemingly stricter language than for example texts for the general public. A text by Bain et al. (2016) is

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really interesting as it can be seen as a guide for researchers and doctors to write a scientific article. In my opinion, it can also be useful for translators to check if the translations conform to certain points. The article is also similar to a short article I had to translate for the

Innovation Centre, namely ‘Writing a summary for lay-men’ (Appendix I), which is also a guide for researchers on how to write for general public.

As for the texts that are not academic, I found that the largest struggle occurred when translating sentences that contained humour or proverbs. As Kovacs (2020) notes, there will always be ‘certain losses and gains’ (p. 69) when it comes to translating, more likely so for jokes and proverbs. As I was not translating to, but from my native language, it was

sometimes difficult to find a phrase in English that would be similar to the Dutch version, for example when it included jokes, as this is not naturally part of my knowledge of English like native speakers have. However, Kovacs also mentions that by using humour in other parts of the text, this can be compensated (p. 69), which I have tried to do to keep texts interesting and humorous.

Conclusion

Overall, the placement was very interesting and useful. Besides learning my major language better and gaining more competences, I was actually able to use skills from my study in the field. Translating different articles and the website showed how many types of texts there are and that each needs specific attention to understand it and make it right for the target audience. Even though I did not reach every goal to the preferred extent, I certainly learned more than I had expected to at the beginning. I would definitely recommend future students of European Languages and Cultures to do an internship as a minor to get an impression of the work field, especially if they are still undecided on what to do after their bachelor. Of course, it would not have been possible without my supervisors at the UMCG, Loes and Laura, who provided me with the opportunity to experience working at the

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Department of Communication. I want to thank both of them, as well as my supervising lecturer Vera Alexander, for the support and kindness during my internship as a translator for the UMCG.

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Sources

Bain, B. J., Littlewood, T. J., & Szydlo, R. M. (2016). The finer points of writing and refereeing scientific articles. British Journal of Haematology, 172(3), 350–359.

https://doi.org/10.1111/bjh.13888[Search term: “process of writing and publishing article”]

Kovacs, G. (2020). Translating humour - a didactic perspective. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica, 12(2), 68–83.https://doi.org/10.2478/ausp-2020-0013[Search term: “translating humour”]

Li, H., & Chen, H. (2019). Human vs. ai: An assessment of the translation quality between translators and machine translation. International Journal of Translation, Interpretation, and Applied Linguistics (Ijtial), 1(1), 1–12.https://doi.org/10.4018/IJTIAL.2019010104 [Search term:

“risks and awareness of using MT”]

Vieira, L.N., O’Hagan, M. & O’Sullivan, C. (2021). Understanding the societal impacts of machine translation: A critical review of the literature on medical and legal use cases. Information, Communication & Society, 24(11), 1515-1532.

https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2020.1776370 [Search term: “risks and awareness of using MT”]

Zinukova, N. (2016). Acquiring translation and interpreting competences: Integrated approach. The Scientific and Methodological Journal "Foreign Languages", (3), 18–24.

https://doi.org/10.32589/im.v0i3.122557[Search term: “interpreting translation”]

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Appendix A

Example of the front page of the Dutch version on the PV website (left) and an example of the front page of the English version in the document (right)

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Appendix B

Example of the first translated Research article: “If only prevention were a pill, everyone would take it”

By: Eline van der Meulen Reading time: 4 min.

October 25th2022

Quit smoking, exercise enough, don’t drink alcohol. Everyone knows that by living a healthy life there is a smaller chance of getting sick. Right? Prevention sounds so logical, but it is quite complicated. Why is it so hard to change your lifestyle and what role does the UMCG play in this?

The UMCG wants to add healthy years to the lives of patients. Better said, to the lives of people, because luckily, being a patient is temporarily for most people. As a knowledge and educational institution, we have a great responsibility towards the society. ‘We are the largest employer of the Northern Netherlands and can therefore mean a lot in the area of prevention’, expresses Erik Buskens, professor Health Technology Assessment at the UMCG and the RUG. Is that too much responsibility to handle? Erik: ‘Absolutely not. Because the UMCG has the knowledge, can educate and does research. Prevention fits therefore right within our

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core tasks. Much is expected from us as a partner, and rightly so. Accordingly, we have to be prepared to actually do something. And that we do.’

Photo: Erik Buskens

Pretty difficult: changing behaviour from unhealthy to healthy

Then what do we do about prevention at the UMCG? The oncology department, for example, advises patients on how to adjust their lifestyle. When necessary, they refer patients to

specialists, such as a dietician, psychologist or physiotherapist. Annemiek Walenkamp is an internist-oncologist at the UMCG. She interacts daily with patients who are starting

chemotherapy, who are in the midst of it or who have just finished it. For the past few years, Annemiek, whom herself is very active, has developed an interest for a healthy lifestyle for patients with cancer and has started research. Fresh off the press, this study now shows that, if possible, exercising during chemotherapy treatment can lead to a better tolerance of the treatment. Exercising results in being fitter and less tired and acquiring a better quality of life.

Photo: Annemiek Walenkamp

The same applies to other groups of patients who are being referred for surgery of for example the hip, knee or heart. The chances of the surgery going well and a quick recovery increase when the physical – and often related mental – condition is better. Even people with mental health and memory issues benefit from a better lifestyle, as this improves or maintains

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their functioning and well-being. However, changing unhealthy behaviour to healthy behaviour proves to be quite difficult in practice, Annemiek knows.

The convenience of one pill

‘Imagine this: you consider prevention to be an extremely powerful medicine. Just one pill and you prevent cancer with it. Few people would doubt whether to take that pill or not.

Unfortunately, such a pill does not exist and it isn’t easy to change your lifestyle for anyone;

you have to put in the effort. Of course, we cannot just impose the recommendations that we provide in this domain. They have to fit the patient perfectly. You really have to know what you are talking about’, explains Annemiek.

According to Erik, few patients are aware of the reason why they have become a patient, which is largely due to lifestyle choices they made before they became ill: ‘Making people aware of this takes time and energy. Even though it may seem logical, there should,

ultimately, also be a reimbursement from the health insurer in return. As long as this form of prevention is not integrated in the standards and guidelines, it sadly often remains to

experiments and projects.’

Pointless it’s-your-own-fault-discussion

Four in ten cancers are preventable by living a healthy life. Quit smoking, exercise

sufficiently, keep a healthy weight, don’t go out in the sun too much, don’t drink alcohol, and so on. ‘Nevertheless, even if you live the healthiest life possible, six out of ten cancers could still occur. The it’s-your-own-fault-discussion that results from this – you should not have smoked or gotten too fat - therefore does not make any sense’, states Annemiek. Patients that come to us already have cancer. The primary prevention is not really up to us as the UMCG.

That does not sound very kind, but we basically focus on diseases and the appropriate treatment. We do not focus on the people we have not met before they became sick.’

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Erik adds and decides: ‘Of course we still have to keep an eye on what happens outside, in the villages, neighbourhoods and families. We therefore have to work with partners such as the municipality, schools and the GGD’s. However, the wisdom on prevention is not solely ours.

At the UMCG the question continuously remains: how do you design a hospital in such a way that a visit to our hospital provides you with ideas that are different from the ones you have had for the rest of your life?'

We want to make our patients, visitors and employees aware that you can make healthier choices in a lifetime. Based on research and education, the UMCG strives to include prevention in the regular healthcare offering.

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Appendix C

Example of the last translated Research article: “UMCG treats first cancer patient with stem cells from own salivary gland”

TEASER: Tissue specific stem cell transplantation should prevent a dry mouth after radiotherapy.

LEAD: The UMCG is the first hospital in the Netherlands to treat a cancer patient with a tumour in the head-neck area by using stem cells from his own salivary gland. This has to ensure that his salivary glands will still work after treatment.

Thursday the 15thof December it was time. After many years of research, Kasper van den Noort (43) was the first in the Netherlands and probably the first worldwide, to get back his own cells from a cultured miniscule salivary gland (organoids) via an injection.<REACTION VD NOORT>

The stem cell transplantation has to prevent Van den Noort from getting a dry mouth as a consequence of the treatment against the tongue tumour he had.

Tongue tumour

Earlier this year, Van den Noort was diagnosed with a tongue tumour. He went into surgery for this at the UMCG. During this procedure, part of his salivary glands was removed as well.

‘We cultured stem cells from this in the laboratory’, explains UMCG-professor Radiotherapy Rob Coppes. ‘These form salivary gland organoids which we can multiply. After

radiotherapy, which the patient has had in the meantime at our Proton therapy centre, we give back cells of these organoids.’

Diminished quality of life

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Annually, there are around 2.500 new patients in the Netherlands with a tumour in the head-neck area. A large part of these patients has a good change of remission after radiotherapy. However, a serious complication is that in case of 40% of the patients, the salivary glands do not work sufficiently anymore after the treatment. The patients therefore continuously suffer from a dry mouth. Chewing and swallowing is difficult, their sense of taste deteriorated. Speaking becomes difficult as well and the teeth are damaged. Therefore, the quality of life of these patients is significantly diminished.

Last steps within the research

To prevent this problem, research group Rob Coppes has been investigating salivary gland stem cell therapy for years. About four years ago, Coppes and his colleagues started with the last steps to create a safe method that can be clinically applied. After Kasper van den Noort, a few other patients will undergo this treatment at the start of 2023. This will happen within a clinical study, in which only a limited and selected group of patients can participate.

Determining whether it is successful

‘We hope to determine later next year whether the treatment is successful for the patients’, decides Coppes. ‘This study is meant to be a “proof of principle” that such a treatment is feasible and safe. If we find a positive effect, a follow-up study will focus on treating patients with tumours in other areas who are also at risk of getting a dry mouth after radiotherapy. In the case of success, the so-called organoids technology could perhaps also be applied to other tissues.’

For the past few years, the study conducted by Rob Coppes and his research group has been made possible by grants from KWF and ZonMW.

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Appendix D

Example of an interview-based text from the Innovation Centre: “Testimonials: Ody Sibon”

Who are you and what is your function within the UMCG?

My name is Ody Sibon. I am a professor and researcher and I also lead a research group at the UMCG.

What kind of innovation did you work on or are you still working on?

I do research on a rare disease called Pantothenate-Kinase-Associated-Neurodegeneration, also known by the abbreviation PKAN. The disease is caused by a defect in an enzyme, which is needed to make coenzyme A from vitamin B5. This coenzyme A is important for many metabolic processes in our body, therefore a shortage of it could lead to problems in the brain.

There is no proper treatment yet against KPAN, while many children die from it at a young age.

During the research, we found that injecting fruit flies with KPAN with a substance derived from vitamin B, would result in the flies being less sick and living longer. To research this further, we have to make this substance in a way that it is suitable to test in a clinical research with PKAN-patients. This sounds easier than it is: the execution takes a long time and is very complex.

Which challenges did you encounter during the innovation process?

As a fundamental researcher, I work in a laboratory: I do not have the knowledge or the experience for such a clinical research. Furthermore, it was quite the challenge to finance this project. Any ‘standard investors’ were out of the question as our project is not patentable.

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Even though we have the ambitious goal to make our product available for all PKAN-patients worldwide.

In what way did the innovation centre support you?

The Innovation Centre did not just help, but even ensured that every step that fell outside of the laboratory became possible. The centre was crucial in finding the right companies and facilities where we could make the vitamin B5-derived product according to all requirements (purity, reproducibility, safety). Thanks to their help, the product was eventually approved of by the medical ethnical board. They have furthermore helped with identifying financing methods, explaining the legislation and much more. By working with the Innovation Centre, we were eventually able to succeed in starting up a clinical research with the product we invented: we started a year ago.

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Appendix E

Example of a knowledge article: “Podcast”

What is a podcast?

A podcast is an audio-broadcast of which the audio file is offered on platforms such as Spotify on request. A podcast can take 5 minutes, but also 5 hours and can discuss any

subject. 46% of the Dutch population sometimes listens to a podcast. A podcast is a good way of bringing substantive topics to people’s attention. A podcast is often informative.

How does it work at the UMCG?

The UMCG has two podcasts which are made regularly, namely UMCGesprekken (i.e., UMCG Conversations) and UMCG Research Talk.

UMCGesprekken

In this podcast, the stories of the UMCG are told. The target audience for this podcast is the general public and patients. The two interviewers of this podcast often invite a medical expert and a patient expert to provide multiple sides of the story.

UMCG Research Talk

In this podcast, the research done at the UMCG is central. Publications, new developments in the research area and broader research topics are discussed in this podcast.

Would you like to propose a topic for one of these podcasts? Please contact the department of communication.

Making a podcast yourself

You can also choose to make a podcast yourself. Make sure you are well prepared, you can start by answering the following questions:

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● What goal do you want to reach?

● Who is you target audience and what are they interested in?

● Is a podcast the right means to reach your goal and your audience?

● Which format are you going to use for your podcast: There are different formats for podcasts, such as an interview between 2 or more people, or for example a monologue from one person.

● Frequency of broadcasting: Do you have sufficient content for multiple episodes. Will you broadcast weekly, monthly or every three months? A podcast is never a one-time thing!

● What will be the timespan of your podcast? You have to be able to get your message across, but you also have to keep your audience interested. Most people tend to listen to podcasts for an average of 30 to 45 minutes or 45 to 60 minutes.

● Speakers: Do you have one or more speakers? It is important that you choose a voice which is ‘pleasant’ to listen to and which is intelligible.

● When you are making a podcast from the viewpoint of your role at the UMCG, you have to take into account that you are representing the UMCG.

● Multimedia has a paid podcast set which you can hire. They can also help you with recording and editing your podcast.

● Decide on how to spread your podcast. Often, you place the podcast on platforms such as Spotify or Apple Podcast, but you have to get the attention of people so they will listen to it.

● Contact the department of communication to discuss your plans. Perhaps we can share your podcast on our corporate channels for a broader reach.

Advice?

Would you like more advice on how to make a podcast? Contact Team Communication.

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Appendix F

Table with the 21 translated texts, categorized by date and with indication of the text type.

Date Title Type of text

1 27-10-2022 If only prevention were a pill Research article

2 27-10-2022 Artificial intelligence and video as a resource to timely discover anomalies in premature babies

Research article

3 2-11-2022 An eye for cultural background is crucial for appropriate care

Research article

4 4-11-2022 Treatment with magic mushrooms offers hopeful results against depression

Research article

5 22-11-2022 Can something be done against the development of ADHD

Research article

6 22-11-2022 Lifelines NEXT provides a foundation for the future of mother and child

Research article

7 30-11-2022 How a study that started twenty-five years ago can make the difference in preventing chronic kidney problems

Research article

8 2-12-2022 UMCG does research on improved treatment acute cerebral infraction

Research article

9 6-12-2022 Diversity and inclusivity Together we are the UMCG

UMCG website

10 7-12-2022 About the Innovation Centre Innovation Centre

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11 7-12-2022 Intake procedure Innovation Centre

12 13-12-2022 How do patients with severe depression experience treatment with ketamine

Research article

13 13-12-2022 Social Media Knowledge article

14 14-12-2022 UMCG treats first cancer patient with stem cells from own salivary gland

Research article

15 14-12-2022 Writing a summary for laymen Innovation Centre

16 20-12-2022 Podcast Knowledge article

17 21-12-2022 Job van Boven Innovation Centre

18 5-1-2023 Innovation Friday Innovation Centre

19 8-1-2023 Ody Sibon Innovation Centre

20 11-1-2023 UMCG presents four Innovation Awards and Mandema-grant

Innovation Centre

21 20-1-2023 Rick Pleijhuis Innovation Centre

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Appendix G

Example of a text from the PV website with children as the target audience:

“Amusement Park Slagharen”

Yihaa! Excited to ga on an adventure with friends and family and make new memories? Go to Amusement & Holiday Park Slagharen for a Wild West adventure.

Come and see, come and see! Be amazed and marvelled by the most spectacular circus acts.

There is a brand-new Circus Show in the summer holiday! This season you might also be surprised by performances of the Red Bandits and Randy & Rosie, on two new stages. In the Music Hall, Randy & Rosie will star again in their own show!

At Slagharen, you go from one adventure straight to the next. One moment you drop from 40 metres high in the Free Fall, the next you feel the cool wind blowing through your hair in the Gold Rush. Besides the many attractions there is also street entertainment. Furthermore, you can enjoy a 4D movie in the theatre. Have you gotten hungry after all those adventures? At the park you can get delicious sandwiches or tasty burgers for the coolest cowboys and cowgirls. You can find awesome gifts and souvenirs in our Main Street, where your personal memories can be put on a customized leather bracelet or cool sweater at John’s Craftsman shop. Is one day of Wild West adventures not enough? You can also stay the night in one of our luxurious lodges. Or book a campsite spot and sleep underneath the stars like a cowboy.

With the amusement park in your backyard, the adventure can immediately continue the next day.

We are following the current RIVM-guidelines; for a safe and carefree day out. When will your Wild West adventure start?

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Appendix H

Example of a text from the PV website with adults as the target audience: “Fletcher Hotel stay for 2 persons”

Fletcher Hotels, for guaranteed enjoyment. The Dutch hotel chain where your wishes are priority. There is a hotel stay for every occasion with over 110 unique hotels located at the most beautiful places of the Netherlands. Looking for a country estate on the Veluwe, a castle in the South of Limburg or a beach hotel at the coast of Zeeland? Or would you rather choose a hotel with a complete equipped luxurious BLUE Wellness resort? Fletcher Hotels has something to offer for everyone.

Included in the arrangement

● 1 × hotel stay for 2 persons

● Information package of the surroundings, including bicycle and hiking trails

● Free WIFI

Additional information Conditions

● The unique reservation code can be redeemed until the 30thof June 2023

● For each reservation there will be a one-time reservation cost of €5,-.

● The unique reservation code is valid for a hotel stay for two persons in one of the Fletcher hotels with exception of Hotel Amsterdam.

● Each hotel has a few of the total number of rooms made available for this promotion.

● Arrival is possible on all days of the week.

● There is no obligation to purchase breakfast and/or dinner.

● Reservations can be made up to four calendar weeks before arrival.

● The tax and handling fee must be paid at the hotel.

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Optional

● A 4-star hotel stay for €5,- p.p.p.n. extra

● A weekend stay (stay on Friday and/or Saturday night) for €10,- p.p.p.n. extra

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Appendix I

Example of a text for the Innovation Centre: “Writing a summary for laymen”

In a summary for laymen, you make scientific research understandable, readable and accessible for interested non-scientists. Contrary to a scientific article in which the details of the method are important, the conclusion, the implication and the future prospect are now the important parts. Imagine yourself as the target group and wonder what they would want to know. What will they notice in practice from your research? Or, what does the result mean for the future?

Building your summary

Building a summary for laymen goes as follows:

Interesting title

Use an interesting title. This shows the content or most important result of your research and invites to continue reading.

The lead

Start the lead (the first paragraph in bold) with the most important message. This is the conclusion/the result of your research in one sentence. For example: Treatment with magic mushrooms offers promising results against depression.

Tip: You can ask yourself a few questions to find out what the most important and

newsworthy information is from your research to write down in your core message. Namely, the 5 Ws and H, which stand for:

● What? ⟶ What is the news/the most important message from your research?

● Who? ⟶ Who has conducted the research?

● Why? ⟶ Why is this outcome important?

● Where? ⟶ Where was the research conducted/published?

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● When? ⟶ When was the research conducted/published?

● How? ⟶ How was the research conducted? (Or, what has been done in this study?)

The best moment to bring your research to the attention of your target audience is when there is a good reason to do so: for instance, on the day your article is published in a scientific journal. Indicate the reason in your lead.

So: Treatment with magic mushrooms offers promising results against depression. This is concluded by researchers of the UMCG. Today, they have published the results in the scientific journal the New England Journal of Medicine.

What is the societal impact of your research

Explain why this study is important for society. For example: Nearly 1 in 5 people deal with depression in their lifetime. A depression is often accompanied by severe suffering for both the patients and their loved ones. A significant part of the patients with a depressive disorder do not get better with regular antidepressants. It is therefore necessary to find new treatment methods. In this study, we investigated whether a treatment with psilocybin, the active compound in magic mushrooms, is effective as a treatment against depression.

More about your research

After the lead, you have space to tell more about your research and the context.

For example:

To participate in this international study, the patients had to have tried two treatments against depression which proved unsuccessful. During the investigation, they took five tablets with a dose of psilocybin. The participants spent the rest of the day in a homely decorated room in the hospital, with two trained therapists by their side.

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24 of the patients have been examined at the UMCG. Three weeks after the treatment, 30% of the participants was in remission; this is a situation in which the patient is completely

redeemed of the complaints.

Future prospect

What are the possible follow-up steps or does your research have direct implications in practice?

For example:

The results of this study give reason for a subsequent international study. In this follow-up study, the effectiveness of psilocybin against depression will again be investigated with a larger group of patients. The expected start of this new research is June 2023.

Writing tips

● Use short sentences of max. 15 words and alternate shorter and longer sentences.

● Keep the paragraphs short, max. 7 sentences.

● Use headings that make the reader curious. This could be a conclusion for instance, but also a question.

● Do not use jargon and otherwise explain difficult words.

● Use a maximum of 500 words.

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