(Gaussian) Random Fields

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(Gaussian) Random Fields

Planck (2013)

Earliest view of the Universe: 379000 yrs. after Big Bang, 13.8 Gyr ago.

Echo of the Big Bang:

Cosmic Microwave Background

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CMB Temperature Perturbations Cosmic Structure at Edge Visible Universe

Planck (2013) CMB temperature map:

Fluctuation Field (almost) perfectly Gaussian

Origin:

inflationary era, t = 10-36sec.

5

2.725

10

T K

T T

 

 

   

1

1 1

1/ 2

exp 1 2

N N

i j N

i j ij

N N k

f M f

P df

  

 

 

  

  

Gaussian Random Field

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Gaussian Random Field:

Multiscale Structure

     

         

3

ˆ 2

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ

ik x

i k

r i

f x dk f k e

f k f k i f k f k e

 

  

 

 

   

Gaussian Random Field: Density

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Gaussian Random Field: Gravity

Gaussian Random Field: Gravity Vectors

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Gaussian Random Field: Potential

Power Spectrum

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Power Spectrum

     

         

3

ˆ 2

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ

ik x

i k

r i

f x dk f k e

f k f k i f k f k e

 

  

 

 

   

   

2

3

( ) ( ) ˆ ( ) ˆ

2

dk P k P k f k f k

 

   

  

The key characteristic of Gaussian fields is that their structure is FULLY, COMPLETELY and EXCLUSIVELY determined by the second order moment of the Gaussian distribution.

P(k) specifies the relative contribution of different scales to the density fluctuation field. It entails a wealth of cosmological information.

P(k) specifies the relative contribution of different scales to the density fluctuation field. It entails a wealth of cosmological information.

Formal definition:

Power Spectrum

   

2

3

( ) ( ) ˆ ( ) ˆ

2

dk P k P k f k f k

 

   

  

       

   

3

1 1 2 1 2

1 2

ˆ ˆ

2 ( )

ˆ ˆ

( )

P k

D

k k f k f k

P k f k f k

 

 

   

 

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Gaussian random field fully described by 2ndorder moment:

- in Fourier space: power spectrum - in Configuration (spatial) space: 2-pt correlation function

Power Spectrum – Correlation Function

 

   

3

3 3

( )

( ) 2

ik r

ik r

P k d r r e

r d k P k e

 

 

 

 

       

       

3

1 1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2 1 2

ˆ ˆ

2 ( )

,

P k D k k f k f k

r r r r f r f r

 

 

 

  

   

     

 

   

1

1 1

1/ 2 1

exp 1 2

2 det

N N

i j N

i j ij

N k

N k

f M f

P df

M

 

 

 

  

 

  

       

2

   

1

ˆ ˆ ˆ

ˆ ˆ exp

2 ( ) ( )

f k f k d f k P f k d f k

P k P k

 

 

 

 

2 2

ˆ ˆ

exp exp

2 2

i i

N

i i i i

f k f k

P P k P k

 

Primordial Gaussian Field

Key aspects of Gaussian fields:

• solely & uniquely dependent on 2nd order moment

• all Fourier modes mutually independent &

Gaussian distributed

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P(k) specifies the relative contribution of different scales to the density fluctuation field. It entails a wealth of cosmological information.

Power Law Power Spectrum:

as index n lower, density field increasingly dominated by large scale modes.

For an arbitrary spectrum,

Power Spectrum

   

2

3

( ) ( ) ˆ ( ) ˆ

2

dk P k P k f k f k

 

   

  

( ) n P kk

log ( ) ( ) log

d P k

n kd k

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Power Spectrum Physical & Observed

CDM Power Spectrum P(k)

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Power Spectrum P(k)

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Phases & Patterns

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Random Field Phases

 

3

( )

( ) ˆ ( )

2

ˆ ( ) ˆ ( ) ˆ ( ) ˆ ( )

ik x

i k

r i

f x dk f k e

f k f k i f k f k e

 

  

 

 

   

When a field is a Random Gaussian Field, its phases q(k) are uniformly distributed over the interval [0,2p]:

As a result of nonlinear gravitational evolution, we see the phases acquire a distinct non-uniform distribution.

( ) k U [0, 2 ]

  

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Power Spectrum:

Pattern Information & Phases

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Ergodic Theorem

Cosmological Principle:

Universe is Isotropic and Homogeneous

Statistical Cosmological Principle

Homogeneous & Isotropic Random Field : Homogenous

Isotropic

[ ( )] [ ( )]

px    apx

[ ( )] [ (| |)]

px    yp    xy

( ) x

Within Universe one particular realization :

Observations: only spatial distribution in that one particular

( ) x

( ) x

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Ergodic Theorem

Spatial Averages Ensemble Averages over one realization

of random field

• Basis for statistical analysis cosmological large scale structure

• In statistical mechanics Ergodic Hypothesis usually refers to time evolution of system, in cosmological applications to spatial distribution at one fixed time

Validity Ergodic Theorem:

• Proven for Gaussian random fields with continuous power spectrum

• Requirement:

spatial correlations decay sufficiently rapidly with separation such that

many statistically independent volumes in one realization

All information present in complete distribution function available from single sample over all space

Ergodic Theorem

( ) x

p [ ( )]x

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• Statistical Cosmological Principle +

• Weak cosmological principle

(small fluctuations initially and today over Hubble scale) +

• Ergodic Hypothesis

Fair Sample Hypothesis

fair sample hypothesis (Peebles 1980)

Figure

Updating...

References

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