John Buscombe, and Christophe Van de Wiele.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
CT computed tomography
DTPA diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid FDG 2‐deoxy‐2‐(18F)fluoro‐d‐glucose GIST gastrointestinal stromal tumor HCC hepatocellular cancer
HD Hodgkin’s disease
MALT mucosa‐associated lymphoid tissue MCC Merkel cell carcinoma
mIBG metaiodobenzylguanidine NHL non‐Hodgkin’s lymphoma NSCLC non‐small cell lung cancer
PBMC peripheral blood mononuclear cells PET positron emission tomography PRRT peptide receptor radionuclide therapy RCC renal cell carcinoma
somAtostAtin receptor scintigrAphy in other tumors imAging
Malgorzata Trofimiuk‐Müldner and Alicja Hubalewska‐Dydejczyk
Department of Endocrinology with Nuclear Medicine Unit, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
SCLC small cell lung cancer
SPECT single photon emission computed tomography SRS somatostatin receptor scintigraphy
SSTR somatostatin receptor TIo tumor‐induced osteomalacia
The inhibitory action of the somatostatin occurs through its interaction with the family of specific membrane receptors, expressed in many organs and tissues. High density of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) has been reported in endocrine and neuro-endocrine cells, particularly in neoplasms originating from those cells. However, the presence, quite often abundant, of functional SSTRs, including type 2, has been also confirmed in neuroendocrine malignancies in broader sense (small cell lung cancer (SCLC), medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC), etc.) and non‐neuroendocrine tumors. SSTRs have been found in non‐small cell lung, breast, prostate, colon, and many other cancers, not only in neoplastic cells with neuroendocrine features or tumor infiltrating immune‐competent cells . This phenomenon implicates the possible auxiliary role of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in clinical management of those neo-plasms. It is also one of the sources of false positive findings, when the “classical”
neuroendocrine tumors are searched for.
centrAl nervous system
The first experience with SRS in pituitary tumors was reported in 1992. The increased uptake of 123I‐labeled Tyr3‐octreotide in sellar region was noted in 12 of 15 acrome-galic patients studied; the authors also noted that negative scintigraphy results were related to the absence of acute growth hormone response to octreotide administration . However, further studies with 111In‐pentetreotide failed to confirm the utility of the SRS in predicting tumor shrinkage or hormonal response to somatostatin analogue therapy in growth hormone producing and non‐functioning pituitary adenomas, as well as in detecting the tumor residual mass in non‐radically resected cases [3, 4]. So, regardless of the frequently positive SRS in pituitary adenomas, due to its limited added value, the method has not been included in routine pituitary patients’ management.
SSTRs are present in leptomeninx. The SSTR type 2 expressing meningiomas have been considered the target for SRS. The increased uptake of the 111In‐pentetreotide in those tumors has been consistently confirmed from the very beginning [5–7]. For meningiomas visualization, two things are essential: (1) the expression of the SSTRs and (2) as the SSTR analogues are water‐soluble, only the tumors located outside the blood–brain barrier or with disrupted blood–brain barrier are detected [8, 9]. The use of 99mTc‐labeled depreotide provided better spatial resolution and enabled the detection of the smaller lesions than with the use of 111In‐pentetreotide . The sensitivity
of 99mTc‐HyNIC‐octreotate in meningioma detection is better than the sensitivity of the CT scans (100 vs. 83%, respectively), and the higher tumor/non-tumor ratio correlates with higher meningioma grade . Due to high tumor‐to‐background ratio, Galium‐68‐labeled somatostatin analogues for PET/CT have also proved to be useful in meningiomas localization [12, 13]. The sensitivity of the method has been shown to be even better than contrast‐enhanced MRI, which detected 92% of 190 meningiomas found by 68Ga‐DoTAToC PET/CT. The current role of SRS in meningioma management includes mainly differential noninvasive diagnosis of the intracranial tumors , but the new applications, such as therapy, both surgery and radiation, planning and performance improvement, or treatment outcome prognosis, are considered [16–18].
Disturbed blood–brain barrier is also the prerequisite of the positive SRS scans in patients with gliomas . The uptake of the tracer has been shown mostly in high‐
grade tumors [7, 19], however less intense in comparison to the meningiomas. Although the SRS has not been involved in glioma patient management, the regional injections of 90‐yttrium‐labeled somatostatin analogues have been applied in palliative treatment of the grade II and III malignancies—see also Chapter 6.6 [20, 21].
The SRS has also been successfully applied in childhood medulloblastomas , primitive neuroectodermal tumors , or hemangioblastomas .
heAd And neck tumors
The SRS has been mostly applied in imaging of the head and neck tumors with neu-roendocrine differentiation: carcinoids, small cell cancers, paragangliomas, esthesio-neuroblastomas, etc. [25, 26]. In the series of 53 patients with neuroendocrine head and neck tumors, the sensitivity and specificity of the 111In‐pentetreotide scintigraphy were 93 and 92%, respectively, with the tumor‐to‐background ratio depending on the tumor type, the highest in case of paragangliomas and carcinoids .
The SSTR type 2 expression in tumor tissues has been confirmed in case reports on positive SRS imaging in esthesioneuroblastoma  and juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas . The SRS application in paragangliomas and medullary thyroid carcinoma management has been discussed in detail in Chapters 4.4.2 and 4.4.3.
The pulmonary tumors were found to be SSTR positive already in the late 1980s . The expression of SSTR type 1, 2A, 2B, 3, 4, and 5 was observed in 79.7, 96.6, 66.1, 49.1, 5.2, and 0% of typical lung carcinoids, 77.8, 77.8, 77.8, 33.3, 0, and 0%
of atypical carcinoids, and 27.6, 69, 24.1, 15.5, 0, and 3.4% of SCLCs, respectively . Frequent expression of SSTR type 2A in those tumors made them the good target for SRS.
The first studies failed to reveal the SSTR expression in non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) , and the positive results of scintigraphy were explained by the presence
of the SSTRs in tumor vessel or in immune‐competent cells infiltrating the tumor.
However, other authors found SSTR type 2 in NSCLC cells by immunohistochem-istry; the higher expression, the better differentiated the tumor. However, no correla-tion between the SSTR type 2 expression and 99mTc‐depreotide uptake was confirmed .
Series of case reports stressed the increasing role of SRS in bronchial carcinoids quite early. The 111In‐DTPA‐octreotide has been shown to be effective in localizing primary tumors, monitoring their growth, and detecting metastatic and/or recurring disease . The radiopharmaceutical was proved to be useful in localizing occult ACTH‐secreting bronchial carcinoids . The study including 28 bronchial carci-noid patients showed positive radiolabeled octreotide scans in 71% of the primary tumors; however, CT proved to be more effective in detecting primary tumors as well as intrathoracic recurrence and liver metastases . Kuyumu et al. compared 111In‐
octreotide with 18F‐FDG PET/CT findings in patients with pulmonary carcinoids (both typical and atypical). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of SRS in the detection of primary tumor, lymph nodes, and distant metastasis were 76, 97, 95, and 86%, respectively. PET/CT was performed in 13 of total 21 evaluated patients, with sensitivity and specificity of 85 and 89.4 %, respectively .
other somatostatin‐based radiotracers have been proved to be able to detect bronchial carcinoids, including 99mTc‐EDDA/HyNIC‐ToC (Fig. 220.127.116.11) . one of the PET‐dedicated tracers 68Ga‐DoTATATE was compared with 18F‐FDG in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. All typical carcinoids included in the study were 68Ga‐DoTATATE positive, whereas 4 of 11 tumors were negative on 18F‐FDG PET/
CT scans. More than a half of higher grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors were 68Ga‐DoTATATE negative, while visualized by 18F‐FDG.68Ga‐DoTATATE was more effective in distinguishing inflammation or collapsed lung from tumor .
Similarly the flip‐flop phenomenon with decreasing uptake of the labeled somato-statin analogue and increasing uptake of the 18F‐FDG in atypical pulmonary carci-noids was shown for 68Ga DoTAToC by Jindal et al. .
small cell lung cancer
Considering its neuroendocrine differentiation, SCLC was an obvious target for imaging with labeled somatostatin analogues. The first analogue available for imaging, 123I‐Tyr‐3‐octreotide, was tested as the SCLC staging agent already in the early 1990s [41, 42]. In the first larger series of 20 patients with histologically confirmed SCLC, iodine‐123‐Tyr‐3‐octreotide correctly identified 84% of primary tumors, and 78% of all patients with extensive disease, however with limited ability to detect liver and bone metastases .
The first study on 111In‐DTPA‐octreotide in SCLC showed primary tumor in 13 of 15 evaluated cases, 12 of which with more diffuse disease than it was suspected
Figure 18.104.22.168 99mTc‐tectrotide scintigraphy in bronchial carcinoid (SPECT/CT) (Nuclear Medicine unit, Department of Endocrinology, university Hospital in Krakow, Poland). (See insert for color representation of the figure.)
based on other imaging modalities . However, the radiopharmaceutical showed limited ability to detect abdominal, particularly liver, metastases, probably due to high physiological hepatic uptake of the tracer . In series of 21 patients 111In‐octreotide detected 86% (48/56) of the lesions already known at the time of scintigraphy, including 94% of mediastinal metastases, 75% of bone metastases, and 71% of abdominal lymph nodes metastases; the technique detected five previously unrecognized SCLC lesions . The next published data were less enthusiastic: both Bohuslavizki et al. and Hochstenbag et al. revealed only limited ability of 111In‐DTPA‐octreotide to correctly identify distant metastases and stage SCLC [46, 47].
This prompted a larger multicenter study that included 100 SCLC, which con-firmed high sensitivity (96%) of the method in visualizing the primary tumor and much poorer performance in detecting the regional and distant metastases (60 and 45%, respectively). The authors concluded that although 111In‐DTPA‐octreotide is not suitable for staging of the SCLC, the decrease in tumor/background ratio during the chemotherapy noted in patient with remission may be utilized in monitoring the treatment .
non‐small cell lung cancer
octreotide scintigraphy was shown quite early to be able to detect NSCLC .
one of the studies compared 99mTc‐octreotide with 18F‐FDG coincidence imaging (using the same gantry). The studied group of 44 patients included 25 patients with NSCLC. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 99mTc‐octreotide for detecting the primary lesion were 100, 75.7, 90.1, and 100%, respectively, and of 18F‐FDG they were 100, 46.1, 83.8, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity of 99mTc‐octreotide for the detection of lung cancer at the primary lesion was comparable with that of 18F‐FDG coincidence imaging. SPECT 99mTc‐octreotide scintigraphy was less effective in detecting hilar and mediastinal lymph node metastases;
however, it proved to be successful in detecting distant metastases . The other radiopharmaceuticals tested in NSCLC included 111In‐DoTA‐lanreotide  and 68Ga‐DoTAToC .
However, it was 99mTc‐P829, later named 99mTc‐depreotide, to be the radiotracer most frequently applied in NSCLC . Although it has been mostly applied for the noninvasive assessment of lung nodules, 99mTc‐depreotide was also used for NSCLC staging and was compared with other modalities used for that purpose. The largest study published so far comprised data from 166 NSCLC patients. Whole body and SPECT 99mTc‐depreotide scintigraphy results were compared with attenuation‐corrected 18F‐
FDG PET. 99mTc‐depreotide scintigraphy was equally sensitive as 18F‐FDG PET (94% (CI: 88–98%) vs. 96% (CI: 90–98%), respectively), but less specific (51% (CI:
34–68%) and 71% (CI: 54–85%), respectively). The staging accuracy of both methods proved to be similar (45 and 55%, respectively); however, the authors concluded it to be insufficient to correctly assess the extent of the disease . Another study on the assessment of locoregional lymph nodes involvement with 99mTc‐depreotide con-ducted on 86 patients with 204 lymph node stations in total, although revealing high sensitivity of 99% and NPV of 98% of the method, failed to confirm any added value
of scintigraphy with equal to CT diagnostic accuracy of 76.4%. The method accurateness did not benefit from quantitative assessment of the tracer uptake .
solitary pulmonary nodule
The first experience with 99mTc‐depreotide in evaluation of the solitary pulmonary nodules was published in 1999 by Blum et al. . It was followed shortly by the announcement of the results of a multicenter trial, which included 144 patients (88 malignant lung lesions). The sensitivity of the method with chest CT as the reference was 96.6% and specificity was 73.1%, comparable with the performance of 18F‐
FDG PET assessment carried out at the end of the twentieth century .
The sensitivity and specificity of the 99mTc‐depreotide scintigraphy in detecting the malignancy in solitary pulmonary nodule varies from 88 to 100% and from 43 to 88%, respectively (Table 22.214.171.124) [55–67]. The results of the meta‐analysis by Cronin et al. comparing different methods of cross‐sectional imaging in solitary pulmonary nodule differential diagnosis are summed up in Table 126.96.36.199 .
The 99mTc‐depreotide in solitary pulmonary lesions was compared head‐to‐head with other functional imaging modalities. 99mTc‐depreotide was proved to be equally sensitive and specific as 201Tl chloride in characterization of the pulmonary lesion, with false positive results being the main disadvantage . Studies assessing 99mTc‐
depreotide and 18F‐FDG usually show greater sensitivity and/or specificity of the latter; however, it has been concluded that 99mTc-depreotide SRS is valuable alternative for 18F‐FDG and should be considered if PET is not available [53, 61, 62].
other labeled somatostatin analogues used in solitary pulmonary nodule assessment were 99mTc‐octreotide acetate and 99mTc‐EDDA/HyNIC‐ToC [49, 69]. The sensi-tivity of the second tracer was 90% in the largest studies published so far, and true negative results were obtained in 79% of the benign lung nodules . The performance tAble 188.8.131.52 sensitivity and specificity of 99mtc‐depreotide in solitary pulmonary nodule assessment
References Number of subjects Sensitivity Specificity
Blum (1999)  14 0.93 0.88
Blum (2000)  114 0.97 0.73
Grewal (2002)  39 1.0 0.43
Baath (2004)  28 0.94 0.64
Chcialowski (2004)  31 0.94 0.44
Kahn (2004)  157 0.94 0.51
Martins (2004)  40 0.97 0.63
Halley (2005)  28 0.89 0.80
Ferran (2006)  29 0.84 0.88
Boundas (2007)  33 1.0 0.65
Szalus (2008)  50 0.89 0.60
Axelsson (2008)  99 0.94 0.52
Harders (2012)  140 0.94 0.58
Sobic‐Saranovic (2012)  26 0.88 0.85
tAble 184.108.40.206 comparison of different imaging modalities in detecting malignancy in solitary pulmonary nodulea Imaging modalitySensitivity (95% CI)Specificity (95% CI)PPV (95% CI)NPV (95% CI)Diagnostic oR (95% CI)
Area under RoC curv (95% CI) Dynamic CT0.93 (0.88–0.97)0.76 (0.68–0.97)0.80 (0.74–0.86)0.95 (0.93–0.98)39.91 (1.21–81.04)0.93 (0.81–0.97) Dynamic MR0.94 (0.91–0.97)0.79 (0.73–0.86)0.86 (0.83–0.89)0.93 (0.90–0.96)60.59 (5.56–115.62)0.94 (0.83–0.98) FDG PET0.95 (0.93–0.98)0.82 (0.77–0.88)0.91 (0.88–0.93)0.90 (0.85–0.94)97.31 (6.26–188.37)0.94 (0.83–0.98) 99mTcdepreotide SPECT0.95 (0.93–0.97)0.82 (0.78–0.85)0.90 (0.83–0.97)0.91 (0.84–0.98)84.50 (34.28–134.73)0.94 (0.83–0.98) a Based on Ref. .
of the method was facilitated by semi‐quantitative analysis of the tracer uptake .
Head‐to‐head comparison of 99mTc‐depreotide and 99mTc‐EDDA/HyNIC‐ToC showed similar efficacy of two somatostatin analogue–based tracers in distinguishing malignant pulmonary nodules; however, the higher number of false positive results with 99mTc‐depreotide was stressed . Similar results were obtained for a two subset of patients, each evaluated with one of two somatostatin‐based tracers .
SSTRs presence, particularly type 2, has been confirmed in breast cancer tissue [30, 72]. Positive correlation between SSTR type 2 mRNA and estrogen and progesterone receptors expression has also been found [73, 74], and the SSTR expression is regulated by the estrogens in cell line studies . These findings led to the clinical application of the SRS as early as in 1994. Positive scintigraphy with 111In‐DTPA‐D‐Phe1‐
octreotide in 39 of 52 primary breast cancers (75%) was reported, particularly in invasive ductal carcinomas, and nonpalpable cancer‐containing lymph nodes were detected in 4 of 13 patients with subsequently histologically proven metastases .
Subsequent studies confirmed similar sensitivity of the 111In‐pentetreotide scintigraphy in presurgical assessment of breast cancer patients [77, 78]. The 111In‐pentetreotide scintigraphy seemed to be less effective in the assessment of axillary lymph nodes involvement , which may be due to the weaker expression of the SSTR2 mRNA expression in metastatic breast cancer .
The positivity of the 111In‐pentetreotide scintigraphy was reported to be related to the SSTR type 2 (P = 0.025), as well as SSTR type 5 (P < 0.001) expression in cancer tissue . The 99m‐Technetium labeled compounds have been also tested in breast cancers. The 99mTc‐depreotide value in prediction of the response to hormonal therapy was tested in breast cancer bone metastases—99mTc‐depreotide was more specific but less sensitive and accurate than 99mTc‐MDP in metastases detection.
Depreotide‐positive patients remained stable during the follow‐up, whereas five of six depreotide‐negative patients progressed . In the larger group of patients with advanced breast cancer, the 99mTc‐depreotide scintigraphy was performed twice:
before and 3 weeks after initiation of the hormonal treatment. The PPV and NPV of baseline 99mTc‐depreotide scintigraphy for therapy responsiveness were 73% (8/11) and 100% (7/7), respectively. Sequential scans were always both positive or both neg-ative. The 99mTc‐depreotide uptake in subsequent scans decreased in responders and increased in the nonresponders (P = 0.017). Baseline and follow‐up scans combined predicted the responsiveness to the hormonal therapy with 100% accuracy . The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 99mTc‐octreotide in the detection of primary breast cancer lesion were 91.8, 22.2, 71.8, and 57.1%, respectively; however, the lymph node metastases may be obscured by the nonspecific breast tissue uptake .
68Ga‐DoTAToC PET/CT has been reported to be able to detect both breast metas-tases from neuroendocrine tumors and primary breast cancer lesions .
The radio‐guided surgery with 125I‐lanreotide was first reported in 1999. The overall accuracy of nodal evaluation with 125I‐lanreotide/intraoperative gamma
detection was 77% and the NPP of this technique was 97%. False positive results were obtained in 20% of histologically negative axillary lymph nodes. A significant statistical correlation between histology and gamma probe counts (P < 0.0001) was found . Intraoperative gamma‐probe detection with 111In‐octreotide of the axil-lary lymph node involvement in SRS positive primary breast tumors was shown to be ineffective in microscopic (in situ) nodal metastases .
other chest tumors
The use of SRS in thymic malignancies evaluation has been mostly described in case reports. Two patients’ series have been published so far. 111In‐DTPA‐D‐Phe1‐
octreotide scintigraphy performed in a group of 18 patients was effective in the detection of thymic masses larger than 1.5 cm and in differential diagnosis of malignant lesions—thymic hyperplasia was negative on SRS scans . In the second series of 14 cases, the 111In‐pentetreotide scintigraphy was positive in 13 cases, whereas in 11 cases, expression of at least one SSTR subtype was confirmed by immunohisto-chemistry .
The experience in SRS in digestive system malignancies other than gastroen-teropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms is limited to case reports and single small series.
99mTc‐depreotide has been the only somatostatin analogue tested in oesophageal cancer patients. Although statistically significant difference in tracer uptake between malignant and nonmalignant oesophageal lesions was confirmed, limited sensitivity of the method (76%) makes it unsuitable for the screening and/or primary diagnosis . Although SSTR expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry mostly in oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the 99mTc‐depreotide uptake did not correlate with tumor type and SSTR expression .
gastrointestinal stromal tumors
The only published report including SRS in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients showed positive scans in 50% of six patients evaluated with
111In‐octreotide . However, tumor cells in primary culture (gastric and small intestinal GIST) specifically bound and internalized 177Lu when incubated with the therapeutic compound 177Lu‐octreotate for 4–48 h, which makes the PPRT the possible treatment method in tyrosine kinase inhibitor–resistant patients .
primary liver cancers
99mTc‐HyNIC‐Tyr(3)‐octreotide scintigraphy has been proved to detect human hepatocellular cancer (HCC) xenografts in nude mice . The human studies showed positive 111In‐octreotide scans in less than 50% of HCC cirrhotic patients—
the imaging may be used as the examination qualifying the patient to the subsequent treatment with long‐acting somatostatin analogues [93, 94].
Although hepatic cholangiocarcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the gallbladder were proved to take up 111In‐DoTA‐LAN, the positive scans did not predict the response to the lanreotide treatment .
urogenitAl neoplAsms kidney
The SRS has been mostly used in renal cell carcinomas (RCC). The largest series published so far included 16 patients with advanced RCC. Although nine of them were positive on 111In‐pentetreotide scintigraphy, lesion‐based analysis showed only 12.1% sensitivity, proving negligible value of the method in this setting .
The first published study on hormone‐refractory metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma compared 111In‐DTPA‐D‐Phe1‐octreotide (octreoScan) with 99mTc‐HDP. Nearly
The first published study on hormone‐refractory metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma compared 111In‐DTPA‐D‐Phe1‐octreotide (octreoScan) with 99mTc‐HDP. Nearly